Completable
SpaceTime and Default SpaceTime
Author: Zhiqiang Zhang
ID:210211195801073173
Abstract
In this paper , a set of spacetime
standards(G gauges) for basic physical units are set forth and then spacetime configurations(STC)
of these units are derived from these standards, such as :
_{}
_{} _{}
(kilogram)
(Ampere)
(Kelvin)
In the universe , only two kinds of spacetime
exist that are completable spacetime (CST) and default space time(DST)
Every physical unit can be
expressed by means of combination of various dimensions of space unit and time
unit ,just like manner of velocity unit which combines one dimension space and
one dimension time.Such expression for an physical unit is called spacetime
configuration of this unit(STC)
Every physical quantity（including physical dimension） has its own STC , STV(spacetime value) and G gauge
.As demonstsrated in this paper , STV of dimension of a physical quantity of any G gauge is
equal to that of reciprocal of its modulus (reciprocal modulus theorem). Many
of basic physical constants bear this characteristic. such as: gravitational
constant , that of Planck ,light speed , Boltzmann
, Avogadro,and other basic physical constants . They all belong to CST and
equal in terms of STV.
such as :_{} =_{}
.Also
there is another method ,default theorem , to calculate a physical process
, by which we can ignore all physical constants in it which are CST , just
working out STV of a mathematical expression which describes this physical
process (DST) and multiplying the STV of this DST with corresponding G gauge to
count physical quantity to be seeked.
ONE G Gauges of the Universe
In a moment at which the universe was
formed ,rules under which the universe runs were brought simultaneously.These
rules stipulate a sets of spacetime standards that is G gauges for all kinds
of physical process generated by the universe.The universe runs itself strictly
under these rules.
1, G
gauges
a , Lenth standard: _{}=0.4050833153880067.…e34 (_{})
b ,Time standard: _{} =1.3512124957728855…e43 (_{})
c , Mass standard: _{} =0.5456213067563055…e7 (_{})
d , Temp.standard: _{}0.3551784548210921…e+33(_{})
e,Current standard: _{}3.2984878496639910…e+30(_{})
f , mol standard: _{}=0.1660540186674938…e23 (_{})
g , Luminius Intensity: ?
The above seven spacetime standards of basic
physical units are called as basic G gauges of the universe.Rest of G gauges
for some other derived physical units are listed in table A2.
2
, Primary properties of G gauges
a , Spacetime value of a G gauge’s dimension is equal
to reciprocal of its modulus.
b , Spacetime value of every G gauge =1
c , G gauges belong to completable spacetime(CST).
3
Meaning of STC and STV
a . Spacetime configuration
When we express dimension of a physical unit by means
of
_{}, then we call such expression is spaceti\me configuration of this unit , expressed by STC.
_{}Here _{} is one dimension
of space , _{} is that of time.
b , Spacetime value
Suppose a physical quantity_{} and then,value ofA ,that of_{}and that of _{}are all called as spacetime value , expressed by STV.
4 , Spacetime configuration and value of basic G
gauges
Table A1 list seven basic G gauges
,among them seventh is unknown so far.In this paper , observed staum(as
calculating basis) of physical constants used in calculation of table A1 are
taken from reference 1 of this paper .
Table A1 STC and STV of G Gauges and
its dimensions
G gauges 
Expression 
Modulus 
Dimension 
STC of dimension 
STV of dimension 
STV 
_{} 
_{} 
0.4050833153880067.…e34 
_{} 
_{} 
2.4686279637116245…e+34 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
1.3512124957728855…e43 
_{} 
_{} 
0.7400760451286427…e+43 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
0.5456213067563055…e7 
_{} 
_{} 
1.8327730013788420…e+7 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
0.3551784548210921…e+33 
_{} 
_{} 
2.8154860927690915…e33 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
3.2984878496639910…e+30 
_{} 
_{} 
0.3031692234676164…e30 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
0.1660540186674938…e23 
_{} 
_{}

6.0221367e+23 
1 
_{} 
? 
? 
cd 
? 
? 
1 
Two SpaceTime Configurations and
Value
of Physical Dimension and Constants
1 ,
Several calculations
According table 1 where values of basic
dimensions are listed , we can count some data as below;
_{}
and then we get _{};
_{};
and then we get _{};
Form _{} and _{} ,
we get:
_{}
From Planck
constant:
_{}
We get:_{} .
Spacetime configuration of basic physical dimension can be calculated by
its spacetime value. General calculating rule is that most of its spacetime
value is contained in terms of _{},and reminder of its value is expressed by a coefficient _{} and _{}.
e.g:
_{}
configuration of m and s which is most
close to this value is _{}, then we have:
_{}, while _{}, thus:
We get _{} =
22.7423949951214240… ,
So , K＝ 22.7424_{} .
By calculating , we find a result as below:
_{}＝_{}.
Which is that space –time value of all of G
gauges and many physical constants
are equal and equal to 1.
There is constant which deserve a special
illustration.It is physical constant _{} (permittivity).
_{}
While_{} , _{}
Thus
_{}.
So we can see that permittivity _{} is a
constant without dimention actually , but this does not affect its application
in classical physics.
e.g: _{}
_{}
While _{}.
2 , Definitions for spacetime
configuration and value of physical dimensions and physical quantities.
We have briefly discussed meaning about spacetime
configuration and its value , Here its definition more strict are given as
below:
a , Spacetime value of physical dimension
Suppose there is a physical quantity
_{}
Here _{}is modulus of A and dimA is dimension of A. , then
We call value of dimA is spacetime value
of this dimension and expressed by dimA_{}or STV (dimA) or (dimA)STV .
b ,
Spacetime configuration of physical dimension
Suppose there is a physical quantity
_{}
Here _{}is modulus of A and dimA is dimension of A. , then
we call
that_{} which equally express dim A in terms of STV is spacetime
configuration of this physical dimension. We use dim_{}as its symbol or abbreviated by STC (dim A) or (dimA)STC
Here _{} is
coefficient , _{} is one dimension
space and _{} is that of time
and
a = 0 , 1
,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , 5
b =0 , 1
,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , 5
. c , Spacetime configuration and Value of
Physical quantity
Modulus of physical quantity
A multiply dim_{} is called spacetime configuration of this physical quantity
, expressed by_{}or STC (A)
That is : _{}
or _{}.
Its value is called spacetime value of
this physical quantity , and expressed by _{} or STV (A) that is :
_{}
or _{}
3 , STC
and STV for Some Physical Dimensions
Table A2 lists some G gauges of physical dimension and
its STC and STV.
From table A2 ,we find some things
interesting , e.g:
a , equivalent mass of charge
STC of electric charge is _{}, that of mass_{}
So we have
_{}
This result means that per unit of charge C is equal
to a mass of_{}.
Table A2 STC and STV of Some Physical Quantity
Physical Quantity 
Name of SI unit 
Symbol 
Expression 
STC 
STV 
G gauges 
Frequency 
Herz 
Hz 
_{} 
_{} 
1.3512124957728855.. e43 
﹝(_{})_{}﹞_{}HZ 
Force 

N 
_{} 
_{} 
0.8260600676546261.. e44 
﹝(N)_{} ﹞_{}N 
Energy.work., heat 
Joule 
J 
_{} 
_{} 
2.0392349827177270.. e10 
﹝(J)_{} ﹞_{}J 
Power radiant, flux 
Watt 
W 
_{} 
_{} 
2.7554397904653969.. e53 
﹝(W) _{}﹞_{}W 
Electric charge 
Coulomb 
C 
_{} 
_{} 
0.2243682799086353.. e+13 
﹝(C)_{} ﹞_{}C 
Electric potential 
Volt 
V 
_{} 
_{} 
0.9088784669330802.. e22 
﹝(V)_{} ﹞_{}V 
Electric conductance 
Farad 
F 
_{} 
m 
2.4686279637116245..e+34 
﹝(F) _{}﹞_{}F 
Magnetic flux density 
Tesla 
T 
_{} 
_{} 
1.1037503975101583.. e48 
﹝(T)_{} ﹞_{}T 
Magnetic flux 
Weber 
_{} 
_{} 
_{} 
0.6726391813104178.. e+21 
﹝(_{})_{}﹞_{}_{} 
Speed 

v 
_{} 
_{} 
1/c= 0.3335640951981520.. e8 
﹝(v)_{}﹞_{}v 
Acceleration 

a 
_{} 
_{} 
0.4507159735729194.. e51 
﹝(a)_{}﹞_{}a 
Angular momentum 

M 
_{} 
_{} 
1/h= 0.1509188961097711.. e+34 
﹝(M)_{}﹞_{}M 
Momentum 

P 
_{} 
_{} 
0.0611134726790853.. 
﹝(P)_{}﹞_{}P 
entropy 

S 
_{} 
_{} 
1/_{}= 0.7242923301787988.. e+23 
﹝(S)_{}﹞_{}S 
Electric field strengh 

E 
_{} 
_{} 
0.3681715026700766.. e56 
﹝(E)_{}﹞_{}E 
Magnetic field strength 

H 
_{} 
_{} 
0.1228087941658695.. e64 
﹝(H)_{}﹞_{}H 
Gravitational constant 

G 
_{} 
_{} 
1 
G 
Planck Constant 

h 
_{} 
_{} 
1 
h 
Permittivity 

_{} 
_{} 
_{} 
8.854187817e12 

b , Angular momentum
STC of angular
momentum is_{}.
c , Magnetic moment
Dimension of magnetic
moment is_{}, while _{}
So , STC of magnetic moment is _{}.
d ,
Equivalent mass of magnetic moment 1
We know per unit of magnetic flux_{}, so
_{}
This means that
quotient of per unit magnetic moment and magnetic flux is equivalent to a mass
of_{}.
e
, Equivalent mass of magnetic moment 2
As we know that circulation quantum _{}
Here _{} represents mass
of the particle involved. So ,
_{}.
This means that
quotient of per unit magnetic moment and circulation quantum is equivalent to a
mass of_{}.
In another paper ,
written by the author and entitled “Feeding Back Energy Principle and Its
Equivalent Mass Forms”, we can see that all kinds of interactions between any
two objects are equivalent to that of gravitational action with corresponding
equivalent mass.
f , 10 dimensions spacetime
According to dimensional analysis above ,
we presume that the universe is consists of 5 dimensions of space and 5
dimensions of time ,that is , 10 dimensions of spacetime construct the
universe.
THREE Completable SpaceTime and
Reciprocal Modulus Theorem
1 , Definition of Completable Spacetime
Suppose there is a physical
quantity _{}
If STV (A
) = 1 ,
then we call this physical quantity is completable
spacetime , simplified as CST.
2 , Reciprocal modulus theorem
Suppose an CST =A = _{}
Thus: _{}
e.g 1:_{}. According this theorem, we have :
_{}
_{}
e.g 2: G=_{} ，according to this theorem , we have:
(_{})STV = _{}.
we prove this by calculating STV of (_{})
(_{})STV =
_{}
3 , Primary properties of CST
a , mass:0.5456213067563055…e7 _{} (=_{}).
b ,dimension:
0.4050833153880067…e34 _{} (=_{})
c ,energy; 0.4903799750763794…e+10
_{} ( =_{})
d ,speed: 2.99792458e+8 _{}_{}(=_{})
e ,frequency:
0.7400760451286427…e+43 _{} (=_{})
f , temperature: 0.3551784548210921…e+33
_{}(=_{})
g,component:containing:0.7400760451286427…e43 numbers of Planck particle(_{})，see “ Planck Particle” behind )
f , G gauges : all G gauges can be
derived from any CST.
e.g:_{}
_{}.
FOUR Default SpaceTime and Default Theorem
1 , Definition of Default Spacetime
Suppose a physical quantity_{} ,
If _{}
Then we call this physical
quantity as default spacetime ,Simplified as DST.
2 , Default Theorem
Suppose a mathematical expression
described a physical process as:
_{}
Here _{} are CST elements
_{} are DST elements
_{} are constants
,and then we
have:
_{}
Here _{}=dimF is dimension of_{}(characteristic dimension).
This means that a certain physical law or theorem
acturally reflects STV of DST produced by this physical process. The quotient
of this STV of this DST and STV of characteristic dimension of this law or
theorem is equal to_{}. During process of calculation of this STV , all CST
elements can be canceled without any effect to the result of this
calculation(since_{} =1).
e.g:when calculating gravitational force
of two object whose mass are
we have_{}.
If we count it by means of default theorem
, then we have:
_{}=_{}
_{}_{}
=_{}.
Here _{} =1.2105657193177600…e+44_{}(See table A2)
FIVE Frequency and
Energy Expression
of Physical Quantity
Suppose a physical quantity_{} , thus
Frequency of _{} is ;
_{}
( substituting_{}_{} by_{}/_{} in _{} expression , we
get _{} )
Energy of A is :
_{}
( since _{}, so we can get this result)
e.g :
calculating
frequency of
In this case , _{}=3 , _{}=2 _{} = 1 and _{}_{}= _{} , so we get
_{}
=_{}.
_{} _{}
Of course , if we do this job by
traditional method , calculating process may be much more simple , here I want
to prove integrity of spacetime theory .
SIX Planck Particle
1
Definition of Planck Particle
We call a particle as Planck Particle if this particle
has such characteristics whose energy is equal to _{} and its_{},
1
Primary Properties of Planck Particle
a , _{}
b , energy =_{}=_{} (_{})
c , frequency =1 HZ =_{}(_{})
d speed =_{}= _{} (_{})
e , dimension = _{}= _{} (_{})
f, mass =_{} =_{} (_{})
g , temperature = _{}=_{} (_{})
h , Planck particle is the most fundamental particle
which
forms all other kinds of substances.
Suppose a
physical quantity _{}, thus
Numbers of Planck particles this A contain equal to_{}
_{}
We see_{} , this means
numbers of Planck particle contained in_{}equal to modulus of frequency of _{}.
e.g: a photon _{}
here _{} = 5 ,_{} = 4 , _{} ,_{} . so we have:
_{}
since _{}
SEVEN Negtive SpaceTime
From _{} gauge , we have :
_{}
So, _{}
When we take the negative one, then we get:
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}.
Here a physical unit of_{} represents its corresponding ones of positive spacetime in
negative spacetime
We know from this result that in negative spacetime ,
STV of some physical dimensions are equal to that of corresponding ones in
positive spacetime , and some equal in modulus but inverse in Its sign. This
may unveil some properties of antiparticle or antisubstances.
We can use spacetime analysistechnique applied in
positive spacetime to ponder about negative spacetime.
The end of this paper
Written in Jun. 24 , 2005 ,