Completable Space-Time and Default Space-Time

               Author: Zhiqiang Zhang

               ID:210211195801073173

                    Abstract

In this paper , a set of space-time standards(G gauges) for basic physical units are set forth and then space-time configurations(STC) of these units are derived from these standards, such as :

              

  (kilogram)             (Ampere)             (Kelvin)

In the universe , only two kinds of space-time exist that are completable space-time (CST) and default space- time(DST)

   Every physical unit can be expressed by means of combination of various dimensions of space unit and time unit ,just like manner of velocity unit which combines one dimension space and one dimension time.Such expression for an physical unit is called space-time configuration of this unit(STC) 

 Every physical quantityincluding physical dimension has its own STC , STV(space-time value) and G gauge .As demonstsrated in this paper , STV of dimension of  a physical quantity of any G gauge is equal to that of reciprocal of its modulus (reciprocal modulus theorem). Many of basic physical constants bear this characteristic. such as: gravitational constant , that of Planck ,light speed , Boltzmann , Avogadro,and other basic physical constants . They all belong to CST and equal in terms of STV.

such as : =

.Also there is another method ,default theorem , to calculate a physical process , by which we can ignore all physical constants in it which are CST , just working out STV of a mathematical expression which describes this physical process (DST) and multiplying the STV of this DST with corresponding G gauge to count physical quantity to be seeked. 

 

ONE    G Gauges of the Universe

 

 In a moment at which the universe was formed ,rules under which the universe runs were brought simultaneously.These rules stipulate a sets of space-time standards that is G gauges for all kinds of physical process generated by the universe.The universe runs itself strictly under these rules.

1,  G gauges

a , Lenth standard: =0.4050833153880067.…e-34  ()

b ,Time standard:   =1.3512124957728855…e-43  ()

c , Mass standard:  =0.5456213067563055…e-7   ()

d , Temp.standard: 0.3551784548210921…e+33()

e,Current standard: 3.2984878496639910…e+30()

f , mol standard: =0.1660540186674938…e-23  ()

g , Luminius Intensity: ?

 The above seven space-time standards of basic physical units are called as basic G gauges of the universe.Rest of G gauges for some other derived physical units are listed in table A2.     

 2 , Primary properties of G gauges

a , Space-time value of a G gauge’s dimension is equal to reciprocal of its modulus.

b , Space-time value of every G gauge =1

c , G gauges belong to completable space-time(CST).

 3 Meaning of STC and STV

   a . Space-time configuration

When we express dimension of a physical unit by means of

, then we call such expression is space-ti\me configuration of this unit , expressed by STC.

  Here  is one dimension of space ,  is that of time.

b , Space-time value

    Suppose a physical quantity and then,value of|A| ,that ofand that of are all called as space-time value , expressed by STV.

4 , Space-time configuration and value of basic G gauges

   Table A1 list seven basic G gauges ,among them seventh is unknown so far.In this paper , observed staum(as calculating basis) of physical constants used in calculation of table A1 are taken from reference 1 of this paper .

Table A1    STC and STV of G Gauges and its dimensions

G gauges

Expression

Modulus

Dimension

STC

of dimension

STV

of dimension

STV
of G gauges

0.4050833153880067.…e-34

2.4686279637116245…e+34

1

1.3512124957728855…e-43

0.7400760451286427…e+43

1

0.5456213067563055…e-7

1.8327730013788420…e+7

1

0.3551784548210921…e+33

2.8154860927690915…e-33

1

3.2984878496639910…e+30

0.3031692234676164…e-30

1

0.1660540186674938…e-23

      

6.0221367e+23

1

?

?

cd

?

?

1

      

 

Two   Space-Time Configurations and Value

               of Physical Dimension and Constants

 1 , Several calculations

   According table 1 where values of basic dimensions are listed , we can count some data as below;

 

and then we get ;

;

and then we get ;

 Form  and  ,

     we get:

   

From Planck constant:

 

   We get: .

  Space-time configuration of basic physical dimension can be calculated by its space-time value. General calculating rule is that most of its space-time value is contained in terms of ,and reminder of its value is expressed by a coefficient  and .

 e.g: 

configuration of m and s which is most close to this value is  , then we have:

     , while , thus:

  We get  = 22.7423949951214240… ,

So , K 22.7424 .

  By calculating , we find a result as below:

   .

Which is that space –time value of all of G gauges and many  physical constants are equal and equal to 1.

There is constant which deserve a special illustration.It is physical constant  (permittivity).

      

While ,  

 

Thus  .

So we can see  that permittivity   is a constant without dimention actually , but this does not affect its application in classical physics.

 e.g:

     

 While  .

  2 , Definitions for space-time configuration and value of physical dimensions and physical quantities.

We have briefly discussed meaning about space-time configuration and its value , Here its definition more strict are given as below:

a , Space-time value of physical dimension

   Suppose there is a physical quantity

  

Here is modulus of A and dimA is dimension of A. , then

We call value of dimA is space-time value of this dimension and expressed by dimA|or STV (dimA) or (dimA)STV .  

 b , Space-time configuration of physical dimension

Suppose there is a physical quantity

  

Here is modulus of A and dimA is dimension of A. , then

 we call that which equally express dim A in terms of STV is space-time configuration of this physical dimension. We use  dimas its symbol or abbreviated by STC (dim A) or (dimA)STC

Here  is coefficient  ,  is one dimension space and  is that of time and

  a = 0 , 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,-1 ,-2 ,-3 ,-4 , -5

  b =0 , 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,-1 ,-2 ,-3 ,-4 , -5

.  c , Space-time configuration and Value of Physical quantity

     Modulus of physical quantity A multiply dim is called space-time configuration of this physical quantity , expressed byor STC (A)

 That is : 

        or .      

 Its value is called space-time value of this physical quantity , and expressed by  or  STV (A)    that is :

  

  or

 3 , STC and STV for Some Physical Dimensions

Table A2 lists some G gauges of physical dimension and its STC and STV.

  From table A2 ,we find some things interesting , e.g:

  a , equivalent mass of charge

STC of electric charge is , that of mass

So we have 

      

This result means that per unit of charge C is equal to a mass of.

Table A2     STC and STV of Some Physical Quantity

Physical

Quantity

Name of

SI unit

Symbol

Expression

STC

STV

G gauges

Frequency

Herz

Hz

1.3512124957728855..

e-43

()HZ

Force

Newton

N

0.8260600676546261..

e-44

(N) N

Energy.work., heat

Joule

J

2.0392349827177270..

e-10

(J) J

Power radiant, flux

Watt

W

2.7554397904653969..

e-53

(W) W

Electric charge

Coulomb

C

0.2243682799086353..

e+13

(C) C

Electric potential

Volt

V

0.9088784669330802..

e-22

(V) V

Electric conductance

Farad

F

m

2.4686279637116245..e+34

(F) F

Magnetic flux density

Tesla

T

1.1037503975101583..

e-48

(T) T

Magnetic flux

Weber

0.6726391813104178..

e+21

()

Speed

 

v

1/|c|=

0.3335640951981520..

e-8

(v)v

Acceleration

 

a

0.4507159735729194..

e-51

(a)a

Angular momentum

 

M

1/|h|=

0.1509188961097711..

e+34

(M)M

Momentum

 

P

0.0611134726790853..

(P)P

entropy

 

S

1/||=

0.7242923301787988..

e+23

(S)S

Electric field strengh

 

E

0.3681715026700766..

e-56

(E)E

Magnetic

field strength

 

H

0.1228087941658695..

e-64

(H)H

Gravitational constant 

 

G

1

G

Planck

Constant

 

h

1

h

Permittivity

 

8.854187817e-12

 

 

  b , Angular momentum

     STC of angular momentum is.

  c , Magnetic moment

     Dimension of magnetic moment is, while

   So , STC of magnetic moment is .

 d , Equivalent mass of magnetic moment 1

  We know per unit of magnetic flux, so

       

This means that quotient of per unit magnetic moment and magnetic flux is equivalent to a mass of.

 e , Equivalent mass of magnetic moment 2

   As we know that circulation quantum

Here  represents mass of the particle involved. So ,

           .

This means that quotient of per unit magnetic moment and circulation quantum is equivalent to a mass of.

     In another paper , written by the author and entitled “Feeding Back Energy Principle and Its Equivalent Mass Forms”, we can see that all kinds of interactions between any two objects are equivalent to that of gravitational action with corresponding equivalent mass.

 f ,  10 dimensions space-time

According to dimensional analysis above , we presume that the universe is consists of 5 dimensions of space and 5 dimensions of time ,that is , 10 dimensions of space-time construct the universe.

 

 THREE  Completable Space-Time and

Reciprocal Modulus Theorem

 

1 , Definition of Completable Space-time

   Suppose there is a physical quantity

If  STV (A ) = 1 ,

then we call this physical quantity is completable space-time , simplified as CST.    

2 , Reciprocal modulus theorem

   Suppose an CST =A =

Thus:

e.g 1:. According this theorem,  we have :

 

      

e.g 2: G= according to this theorem , we have:

()STV = .

we prove this by calculating STV of ()

()STV =

3 , Primary properties of CST

   a , mass:0.5456213067563055…e-7  (=).

   b ,dimension: 0.4050833153880067…e-34  (=)

   c ,energy; 0.4903799750763794…e+10  ( =)

   d ,speed: 2.99792458e+8 (=)

   e ,frequency: 0.7400760451286427…e+43  (=)

   f , temperature: 0.3551784548210921…e+33 (=)

   g,component:containing:0.7400760451286427…e43  numbers of Planck particle()see “ Planck Particle” behind )

   f , G gauges : all G gauges can be derived from any CST.

      e.g:

          .

 

FOUR  Default Space-Time and Default Theorem

 

1 , Definition of Default Space-time

   Suppose a physical quantity ,

   If  

   Then we call this physical quantity as default space-time ,Simplified as DST.

2 , Default Theorem

   Suppose a mathematical expression described a physical process as:

       

  Here  are CST elements

        are DST elements

        are constants

      ,and then we have:

       

Here =dimF is dimension of(characteristic dimension).

This means that a certain physical law or theorem acturally reflects STV of DST produced by this physical process. The quotient of this STV of this DST and STV of characteristic dimension of this law or theorem is equal to||. During process of calculation of this STV , all CST elements can be canceled without any effect to the result of this calculation(since =1).

 e.g:when calculating gravitational force of two object whose mass are 1 kg each and 1m apart , then according to

we have.

If we count it by means of default theorem , then we have:

=

  

   =.

Here  =1.2105657193177600…e+44(See table A2)

 

FIVE      Frequency and Energy Expression

 of Physical Quantity 

 

Suppose a physical quantity , thus

 Frequency of  is ;

       

( substituting by/ in  expression , we get   )

Energy of A is :

 

( since , so we can get this result)

e.g :

calculating frequency of 1kg

In this case , =3 , =2  || = 1 and =   , so we get

 

=.

    

Of course , if we do this job by traditional method , calculating process may be much more simple , here I want to prove integrity of space-time theory .

           

SIX    Planck Particle

 

1          Definition of Planck Particle

We call a particle as Planck Particle if this particle has such characteristics whose energy is equal to  and its,

1          Primary Properties of Planck Particle

a ,

b , energy == ()

c , frequency =1 HZ =()

d speed ==  ()

e , dimension = =  ()

f,  mass = = ()

g , temperature = = ()

h , Planck particle is the most fundamental particle which

forms all other kinds of substances.

 Suppose a physical quantity , thus

Numbers of Planck particles this A contain equal to 

     

      We see  , this means numbers of Planck particle contained inequal to modulus of frequency of .

e.g: a photon

here  = 5 , = 4 ,   ,  . so we have:

      

       since

 

SEVEN   Negtive Space-Time

 

 From  gauge , we have :

So,

When we take the negative one, then we get:

  

  

  

   .

Here a physical unit of represents its corresponding ones of positive space-time in negative space-time

We know from this result that in negative space-time , STV of some physical dimensions are equal to that of corresponding ones in positive space-time , and some equal in modulus but inverse in Its sign. This may unveil some properties of anti-particle or anti-substances.

We can use space-time analysistechnique applied in positive space-time to ponder about negative space-time.

            The end of this paper

            Written in Jun. 24 , 2005 , Dalian China.