G BUBBLE BURSTS AND THE UNIVERSE BEING CREATED

               Author: Zhiqiang Zhang

Abstract            

In this work , definitions of some basic physical units , such as :

G bubble () , information () , vacuum () ,modulus of the universe (MU) , modulus of information of the universe( i ), entropy flow () , and event ( ) are defined.                       

One process through which time , mass and information being created is illustrated and then a formula called Information Equation of the Universe” is derived which describes STC , STV and numbers of all events happened and to be happened.

  Under assumptions of STV of four physical quantities , some basic physical units and constants can be derived from these four datum.

   Some conclusions regarding the universe are drawn in terms of age , lifetime , total masses , dimension , finality and mechanism of expansion and background radiation of the universe , furthermore , having predicted that along with time passing by , temperature of this type of radiation would Increase by 0.8248K per ten billions of years.

Also past world ,events happened in the past , is unveiled in terms of its STV , STC and numbers where , being state of pure vacuum , some events being emerged are exactly the same as it happened in the past while others being emerged are those combined by segments of the above events , but all images of these events do not materialize any more and would exist by means of its unique STC:  as long as vacuum does.

Finally an ultimate verdict is made which is that the universe had , has and will having been informatiated itself from its substantiated entities into an informatiated world where 0.55e+86 numbers units of informations will aggregate with identical STC of .

 

ONE   Theoretical Value of Physical Quantities

 

In the paper“Completable Sapce-Time and Default Space-Time”(simplified as paperA thereinafter) , STV of some basic physical units were listed but not precise very much due to interference factors of measurements . By calculating and analysis , assumptions of four basic datum are set forth as below:

|STV =1.e-86

|STV =6.e+68

=1.008e+93

   ==0.

    STV of basic G gauges , rest of G gauges and some basic physical constants can be derived from these four datum , and some of them are rational figures ( infinite circulating decimal or whole number) and list them below (See Table C1 ). Unfortunately some results have little difference to their observed ones. In this paper , STV of G gauges and physical constants adopt these theoretical values.

Table C1    Theoretical values of physical quantities

Item

ExpressionSTC

STV(theoretical)

Observed data

1.e-86

 

6.e+68

 

|G|

1.008e+93

 

0.

0.00729735308

±3.3e-10

Drived STV of Physical Quantities

2.4720661623652209…e+34

 

0.7416198487095662…e+43

 

1.008e+93/

6.6745786383860966…e-11

 

6.67259e-11

±8.5e-15

|G|

2.e-10

 

2.8120127152383534…e-33

 

0.3025855350368333…e-30

 

=

6.0147595191367907…e+23

6.0221367e+23

±3.6e17

 

44.54e-22

44.5234573081e-22

1/

44.e-45

44.213085120545e-45

|G|/1.008e+23

6.6194168314572659…e-34

6.6260755e-34

±4.0e-40

2.e+8

2.99792458e+8

1.3804426056624644…e-23

1.380658e-23

±1.2e-23

||

1/kg

0.e-7

 

1.8e+7

 

|G||h||c|

0.132e-34

0.132547494640…e-34

|G||h||c|

 

0.397e-26

0.397367392200…e-26

|G||h||c|

1.192e-18

1.191277472367…e-18

||G||h||c|

3.578e-10

3.571360016010…e-10

|G||h||c|

0.10736

0.107066679760...

1.4e-52

1.474789773415…e-52

0.4e-60

0.491936916376…e-60

0.1e-68

0.164092492405…e-68

0.e-77

0.547353637581…e-77

1.e-86

1.825775208732…e-86

1 / |c|

0.e-8

0.333564095198…e-8

1 / |c|

0.e-16

0.111265005605…e-16

1 /|c|

0.e-24

0.037114010921…e-24

1 / |c|

0.e-32

0.012379901472…e-32

1 / |c|

 

0.004129490633…e-40

/|c|

1.8e+77 =e+70 kg

 

|c|

0.55e+86

=2.e+78 kg

 

Remarkobserverd datum are taken form reference 1/page972-976 of this paper.

 

TWO     Some Definitions

 

1, Definitions

a, Entropy Flow    

  Planck particle | h| J also has another physical meaning , since    =   =|KB|(S) |TS|(K)

  here  || =1.3804426056624644…e-23 ,

S is unit of entropy and K that of temperature.

 TS = 0.4795140923863816…e-10K (temperature of Planck particle).

   We see that a |h| J is an energy flow of | | entropies at temperature of TS , so defining | h | J as an entropy flow. We can count that

         |STV  = 1.3483997249264841…e-43 .   

b ,  Vacuum 

   Defining =as physical unit of vacuum and expressed by , and

        ()STV = 1.008e+93 .

c , Information  

   Defining  as physical unit of information.

 since =  = = / , so information means ratio of entropy flow with respect to time and also has STC of full dimensions of space-times , that is the most superior structure of space-time.

        |STV = 1.e-86 .

also represent all events happened in the universe at moment of (see secction”Information Equation of the Universe” behind)

d , G bubble   

   Defining ()as G bubble expressed by  , and

           ( )STV  = 1.

bubble is an CST.

e , Modulus of the universe   MU 

Calling MU as modulus of the universe , and

MU= =(||)STV =|STV =0.55e+86.

Here =||.

f , Event      

   Defining  as event and we can count that:

 | |STV =1.e-86

    An event is consists of products of  terms of various informations combined and means a thing happened in the universe at moment of =.

 

THREE  A Process of the Universe Being Created

 

1, G bubble burst ( CST Phrase transformation)

Before our universe formed (3.3170311178758667e+10 years around) , only two type of STC existed there :vacuum (=)and an unit of initial information of  .This initial information bonded itself with a piece of vacuum (=||)  forming an initial G bubble, = (||)= , and initiated a process of the universe(the one in which we live ) being created.

See Fig. C1

Interpretation of the Fig.C1

    is an CST and stipulated a sets of G gauges of the universe and followed its burst(CST phrase transformation):

Step one:

Two planck particles escaped from  within the CST, and triggered its burst and turned this CST into DST temporarily., also = was broke and separated intoand.As a result , physical unit of time was emerged..

Step two:

One particle of= (entropy flow) combined withforming an unit of information=()= .

Step three:

  plunged itself into and generated a mass of= (||) = ||kg = 0.e-7kg  , and quantities of vacuum reduced by 1/ MU=1/0.55e+86.

.Step four:

     As a result of the above steps combined , a new modulus of the universe,  ==( 1 – 1/ MU ) +, reshaped. 

Step five :

        and combined each other forming a new G bubble  = and first CST phrase transformation process was completed.

Step six:

  Another planck particleoffset unit of time,that is=1. All G gauges folded again , and CST closed. 

All of these things happened lasted 1.3483997249264841…e-43s . This

also stipulated that every G bubble burst would exactly last the same period .

Step seven :

     The second G bubble burst commenced subsequently in the same way as did.

    As a result of this process , total masses of the universe added to 2 = 2|| kg = 1.e-7 kg and total time lasted added to 2 = 2 ||  = 2.6967994498529682…e-43 and reshaped:

   == ( 1 – 2/ MU ) +   .

And also =  emerged.

              ……..

Step eight

     After (i-1)th burst of  , the universe reshaped itself with total masses of (i) || = i(0.e-7 )kg , total time lasted of (i)( ) = i(1.3483997249264841…e-43 )  and modulus of the universe became:

  == (1  -  i / MU ) +     (C-0a)

and G bubble of formed.  

    We see that ||=0.55e+86==||.

We call i in equation of (C-0a) as modulus of information of the universe and it also represents STV of DST of the unicverse at moment of.

   We see the universe generated masses at a ratio of

/ = 0.4045199174779453e+36 /.

   We also see if we can pin point STV of DST of the universe at present , by default theorem ,  we would be able to determine status quo of the universe in terms of masses , dimensions , age ,  … and so on.

2 , Value of i at present   n

We express value of modulus of information(STV of DST) of the universe at present by n (i=n).

Observed datum up to now regarding to the universe at present are well known but with an ? attached each:

   Total masses :  1e+21 M = 1.986e+51( kg) ?

   Radius :    1e+10 (pc) = 3.0857e+26( m) ?

   Age      :  1e+10 (years) 2e+10( years) ?

   Mass density of the universe: 1e-27( kg/m) ?

    (see Ref.2/page 551 and Ref.3/page 139)

Here Mis masses of the sun and equal 1.986e+30 kg .

But being nature of human being , seeking know how upon the universe is their essence spiritually , and they never get fully satisfied with estimated results and observed datum. There must be a way by which these datum can be explained mathematically, logically , rationally , simply and harmoniously and then made more accurate. In 1990 ,mankind launched a satellite dedicated to detect temperature of microwave background radiation and get the most precise result : 2.736±0.016 K(see Ref.3/page145).I found a way by using this paramount data as standard to calculate value of n more accurately and theoretically(see the method in section of this paper “Investigation to Cosmology’behind.

   If we take this paramount data as a standard , we can get value of n by the method , that is:

Modulus of information of the universe at present

= STV of DST of the universe at present

= n

= 7.7577806787995700…e+60                                                   

   We know this value is STV of DST of the universe at present. According to default theorem , we can calculate status quo of the universe .For instance :

   a, Total masses of the universe at present equal to :

(n)()=7.7577806787995700e+60( 0.e-7 kg)

     = 4.2315167338906745…e+53 kg (including dark matter)

If we deem total masses of dark matter in the universe are 100 times of that of observed ones(see Ref.3/page167) , there would be that total of observed masses of the universe are equal to :

4.2315167338906745…e+51 kg;

   b, Radius of the universe at present equal to: (n)=

(7.7577806787995700e+60)(0.4045199174779452…e-34) =3.1381767999999997…e+26  ;

   c, age of the universe at present equal to :(n)()=(7.7577806787995700e+60) (1.3483997249264841…e-43) 

        =10.4605893333333332…e+17

        =3.3170311178758667…e+10 years;

   d, Average of Mass density of the unicverse at present:

   Suppose the universe is sphere , thus we have

= 3(i ) /4(i ) 

=1.9672077805101312… e+95/ i  (kg./m  ) 

here =3.1415926.

 when i=n(modulus of information at present) , we have

 = 1.9672077805101312…e+95/ n(kg./ m ).

     So ,at present , average of mass density of the universe  equal to =

1.9672077805101312+95/(7.7577806787995700e+60)(kg./m)=3.2687013208516524…e-27(kg./m),and keeping decreased as i→MU=0.55e+86.

  

FOUR    Information Equation of the Universe

 

From process of G bubble burst we see that  had , has and will having been turned vacuum into masses.In this section , we also can see that these masses transformed contains all events of the universe happened in the past , that is , every mass of  contains all things happened in the universe at moment of relative to vacuum..   .

  This property is unveiled by a formula called information equation of the universe or simplified as equation of the universe.From process of G bubble burst , we know:

         = (1  -  i /  ) +   

           = (1  -  i / MU ) +

           =  (1  -  i /0.55e+86  ) +

           =

        = = (1  -  i /0.55e+86) +  =

 =  = =(bursted) , so we get:

When i=0 , total numbers of events happened equal to 2 =1

 ==  = () ||;

When i=1 , total numbers of events happened equal to 2 =2

 = = (1 -  1 /0.55e+86  ) +

=  

  = ()|| (1  -  1 /0.55e+86  ) +

When i=2 , total numbers of events happened equal to 2 = 4

= = (1  -  2 /0.55e+86  ) + =

=() || (1- 2/0.55e+86) +

 + (1 – 1/0.55e+86)  + .

When i = 3 , total numbers of events happened equal to 2 = 8:

 == (1  -  3 /0.55e+86 ) +

=

=() ||(1- 3/0.55e+86)|  +

+(1 – 1/0.55e+86)  +

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86)  +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) + .

When i=4 , total numbers of events happened equal to 2 = 16:

= = (1  -  4 /0.55e+86 ) +

=

=() ||(1- 4/0.55e+86)  +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86) +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+(1- 3/0.55e+86)   +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86)  +

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86)   +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86)+    

When i=5 , total numbers of events happened equal to 2 =32:

== (1  -  5 / MU ) +

=

= ()|| (1- 5/0.55e+86) +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86e86) +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+ (1- 3/0.55e+86)  +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86) +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86)+

+ (1- 4/0.55e+86) +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86)  +

+ (1 – 1/0.55e+86) +

+ (1- 3/0.55e+86) +

+(1 – 1/0.55e+86))+

+ (1- 2/0.55e+86) +|

+ (1 –1/0.55e+86) +       

         ……

When i=n , total numbers of events happened equal to :

=                                    (C-1a)

= (1  -  n / MU ) +             (C-1b)

=                                            (C-1c)

=+          

(C-1d)

=()||+   

                              (C-1e)

=+

                                             (C-1f)

 Here   = ,

  represents combinatorial array in stead of numbers of combinability In  , factoronly appear once , that is , repeat one should be canceled.

.   x =(n-1) ,(n-2) , … , 2,1 .

      y =0 , 1 ,2 , … x .  =n ,…2,1.    .

Among these events , there were /2= numbers of events bearing STC of  (called O category event)  and /2= numbers of events bearing STC of

(1 - /MU) (0) (called S category event).

From the above equations , we see :

a ,  bubble’s bursting stages all events happened in the universe at moment of ,and then  bubble’s closure brought an outcome that all these events were concentrated into a mass of ;

b ,Numbers of events contained within  is equal to2;

c , Total of events happened in the universe up to now equal to:

          = - 1

   Here n=7.7577806787995700…e+60 ;

Total numbers of events happened and to be happened combined of the universe will equal to:

 = - 1

Here MU=0.55e+86.

d , Every term in the equation (C-1e) represents a unique event happened in the past in terms of its STC and STV :

  or , (1 - /MU)|

e ,By equation(C-1e) , there would be an effect that all events the mass of  contained would display in state of vacuum:

()||+

f ,  By equation (C-1f) , all events happened in the universe combined at moment of (in) forms an CST:

STV+=1 ,

vice versa , an CST contains all informations(or events) of the universe happened in the past at a moment of   .

g ,A certain unit of information is also consists of all units of informations prior to it (including itself) ,that is different contents of informations, despite every unit of information has equal STV and STC:

=+,

 this also means that an information unit represent all events happened in the universe at moment of .

h , Events to be happened in future can be also exclusively determined in terms of its numbers , STV and STC:

+  

 = .   x =(i-1) ,(i-2) , … , 2,1 .

      y =0 , 1 ,2 , … x .  =i ,…2,1.  .

i ,  Every event has its own unique binary digits that have total of 0.55e+86 bits and calling it as its information code

  If we assign    by “1” , and absence of  by “0” in this code , we can express an event by its unique binary digits

e.g1 :

 Binary digits of an event ( ) is:

000000000000000000000000000…000000000000111111

            (aggregated 0.55e+86.bits)

e.g2:

Binary digits of an event( ) is :

0000000000…10000000000000000…0000000000011110

       

(nth bit)

(aggregated 0.55e+86.bits )

FIVE    Investigation to Cosmology

1 , value of n   

By    =                     (C-2a)

    Now we investigate quantities of temperature generated by all these informations.

Since  ||== ||

      |STV = 1.e-86

      = 0.3556171686496934…e+33=1

|| = (|STV )() =0.6465766702721699…e-53

We express this temperature by T s =| T s| .

then we get

 ==|||| =| || T s|  

                                         (C-2b)

= ( ) (i| || T s|)                    (C-2c)

      =() (i)                             (C-2d)

 

      Here(i) represents temperature of background radiation of the universe , that is :

      (i) =(i||| T s|)                     (C-2e)

     We see from equation(C-2d), that being state of pure vacuum  ,there would be a temperature of( i||| T s| ) .

  At present , i=n and we have already observed this temperature measuring at 2.736±0.016  ,thus, there would be:

   (n) =n||| T s|  = 2.736±0.016 .

   if we take (n)  =2.736  as a standard , then we get

n =2.736 K / (0.e-7)( 0.6465766702721699…e-53)

       n = 7.7577806787995700…e+60

2 , finality of the universe

   Previously we calculate status quo of the universe by using this data n (modulus of information of the universe at present ) , now we look at finality of the universe.

We know from discussions the above that the universe has been constantly transforming vacuum into masses and creating informations .Along with this process being proceeded , value of modulus of information of the universe is kept increasing until reaching at i=MU= 0.55e+86.At this point ,according to default theorem , there would be a results regarding to the universe:

 a , lifetime :(MU)()

=( 0.55e+86)(1.3483997249264841…e-43)

          =0.7416198487095662…e+43

          =0.2351661113361130…e+36 years.

b , ultimate masses : (MU)()

=(0.55e+86)(0.54e-7)kg

                = 2.e78 kg

c , ultimate dimension: (MU)()

=(0.55e+86) (0.4045199174779452…e-34m)  

=0.2224859546128698…e+52 m

d , ultimate temperature: (MU) =(MU) || T s

 =0.1939730010816509…e+26 .

e ,ultimate density of mass: = 3(MU ) /4(MU )

=1.9672077805101312…e+95/ (kg./ m )

=0.6503166216562417…e-76(kg/m).

3 , Expansion of the universe

Mechanism of expansion is due to that masses of the universe are constantly created and kept increasing by/

= 0.4045199174779452…e+36 kg per second, while mass density of the universe is kept decreasing along with increasing of i (=1.9672077805101319 e+95/ i kg./m).That would be the case of constant expansion of the universe..

  Speed of this expansion also can be calculated in a easy way:

         i / i()  =   =  ,

so boundary of the universe is enlarging at speed of light.

4 ,Temperature of background radiation of the universe

We know from equation(C-2a) and (C-2e) , temperature of background radiation of the universe are steming from inform- ations that are kept creating constantly. From conclusions and  observations of modern physics and experiments , we know that information being created would generate heat.Due to property of this temperature steming from informations generated in the past , so we also call it as heat of past(see section SIX“PastWorld”).

This temperature would increase gradually.At present n=7.7577806787995700…e+60 ,this brings an outcome that temperature of the universe would be (n) =2.736 and also along with modulus of information approaching to MU,(i) would increase by0.8248339864089238…() per ten billions of years(2.736/3.3170311178758667…e+10years).

This also mean the universe would warm up gradually and spectrum of this radiation would shift toward to ultrared ,then red,and then yellow ,… .as a result , the sky would become more brighter.

 5 , Instantaneity and simultaneity of time and information

At any circumstance , STV of modulus of the universe remains unchanged and always display itself in terms of=

0.7416198487095662…e+43 .  

since  |STV =0.55e+86 , so speed of time would be

 (|STV )(  ) =(0.55e+86)  = 1.64e+94 () .

we express this speed by. Also we can count: 

= 0.2224859546128698…e+52(/)   .

 means that this speed of time can safeguard itself to reach anywhere within the universe in a moment , even at last momentin the ultimate distance of the universe:

(0.2224859546128698...e+52m).

we see time have a property of instantaneity and simultaneity.  

  From  =  , we see , this speed of time is essentially relative to or relative to events (since

==+),

according to principle of relativity of motion ,  would traverse with such speed over . This also means that informations(or events) travel at this speed relative to modulus of the universe (the materialized part of G bubble).

  With this speed , insure itself can concentrated events into a mass anywhere in the universe in a moment even at somewhere with ultimate distance 0.2224859546128698e+52m

That also may be reason why our thinking has capacity to reach instantaneously as far as we can think.

  So we can absolutely convince that both time , information and event are of hyperspatial.

        

SIX     Past World  

 

It is well know that past things(events) disappeared exactly at the moment at which it was happening(actually it lasted exactly period of ). From the process of G bubble burst and equation of the universe, we know these events were transformed into masses and hid among them.

 From process of G bubble burst , we know;

=1= =            

(C-3a)

=()||+

                                                  (C-3b)

kg=()+ 

(C-3c)

= i= =() ( i |||T|)=()(i)         

(C-3d)

=()||+  

                                   (C- 3e)

We can unfold this property further as below:

a ,  By equation (C- 3a) ,STC of mass has a meaning which is that it is consists of vacuum and information (or events).

b , By equation(C- 3d) , all G bubbles bursted had transformed into masses :

        =i= =i||

c , By equation(C-3e) ,all masses generated in the past time of i()  contain all events happened during same period:

||+

c , From definition and STC of events . we know:

     |STV ||STV  =1.e-86

its equivalent mass (1.e-86)( ) =e-93

its equivalent dimension(1.e-86) ()=0.7355e-120

compared with corresponding quantities of substantiated world .

we can approximately view that events do not materialze or substantiate ,but they are reality , a real entity in terms of STC and STV and actually the opposite side of masses to which it belong, that is ,a mass and all events it contains coexist at state of vacuum . bearing totally different STC.

d , By equation(C- 3e) , being state of pure vacuum , all events happened in the past still exist and could display in full view :

()||+

e , by equation (C-3c) , some events being emerged are exactly the same as it happened:

  or , (1 - /MU)

and some are images never happened in the past but ones combined by some segments of those events. e.g

     an image =+     .

This may be the reason why we can image or dream of what never happened in real materialized world.

f ,  By equation (C-3b)  , every has different unit of information and numbers of events() , that is , different contents of informations:

=||+

g, By equation (C-3c) , two objects each weighted 1 kg of mass  contains different numbers of informations , this also means that objects can differentiate from each other by possessing different degree of being informatiated , despite having same quantity of mass:

kg=()+

h , By equation(C-3d)  , background radiations of the universe stems from all events happened in the past( a proof that past events still exist along with evolution of the universe).  Temperature of this radiations justifies to be called as heat of past:

 = ()(i)

Due to its characteristic of representing past events , so this realm of space-time is also reasonable to be called past world.

   From the above analysis , we get a conclusion :there are two

kinds of world in the universe . One is the materialized world in which we live , see , conceive and is of materialized  , meanwhile past world , where all things happened in the past still exist literally and vividly , coexist indivisibly along with the materialized world as vacuum being available .

Since past world is also composed of STC matching the materialized world , there should certainly be a way through which these two world can communicate with each other(in fact , it did , does and will do so).

 

SEVEN  Informatiated World

  We now briefly review the above highlights:

    took a piece of vacuum of ||and formed the first CST() .Along with  burst ,.time unit , first quan- tity of time 1.3483997249264841…e-43 and first mass of =0.e-7kg were created ,an event happened at the moment in the universe was concentrated into this mass,  while  reduced itself by 1/MU. Followed the next G bubble burst one by one… .As a result , modulus of information (i) of the universe added one by one , mass and time also follow this suit .

  At present ,total numbers of CST bursted were equal to

          n = 7.7577806787995700…e+60

 with total of masses of

  4.2315167338906745…e+53 kg disgorged

and 3.3170311178758667e+10 years lasted

and 3.1381767999999997…e+26m extended

and 7.7577806787995700…e+60 units of nformations created

and a temperature of 2.736K heated

 …….

   The universe will not stall this process until last piece of 

will have been consumed. When i = MU=0.55e+86 , all of

will have been transformed into masses and the universe will reach at a point where

 a,lifetime:(MU):

              =0.2351661113361130…e+36years.

b , ultimate masses : (MU)  

               = 2.e+78 kg

c,ultimate dimension: (MU)  

=0.2224859546128698…e+52 m

d , ultimate temperature: (MU)|MG| T|K

                  =0.1939730010816509…e+26 K.

e , ultimate average density of mass 

=1.9672077805101312… e+95/ (MU) (kg/m)

=0.6503166216562417…e-76(kg/m).

At this moment() , last segment of  will be consumed and STC of of the universe(our universe) will not exist any more .As a result , second CST phrase transformation will occur: all of masses of the universe will disintegrated and disappeared (since kg= () , whilevanish instantaneously) .The materialized world will collapse and disappear ,all events will be dissociate from constraint of its restrainted manner(mass) and a new informatiated world will be born where everything happened in past 0.2351661113361131e+36years  (total of 0.55e+86 numbers of units of informations) exist forever but not materialize never

      will eventually turn all materialized world into identical STC of its own and process of evolution of the universe will come to an end , time will stall and the process of G bubble burst will finally cease. .               

  When i= MU  =0.55e+86 ,  will find no vacuum to join in this space-time realm transformed. 

What did  represent as initial information?

Where is  now and then?

Where will    be then?

  Now you can find the answer by yourself.

                The end of this paper.

                Written in Oct.7 , 2005, Dalian , China.