Feeding Back Energy Principle and Its Equivalent Mass Forms    

                        AuthorZhiqiang Zhang

                        ID210211195801073173

                        Email : gp@xinzhitrading.cn 

Key word : Feeding back energy principle , Mass law , Unified expression of physical interactions

 

Abstract

In this paper , an hypothesis which unveils energies fed back between any two objective bodies is put forward  , and it expound this principle in terms of several equivalent masses , such as charge equivalent mass , magnetic moment-flux quantum equivalent mass , magnetic moment-circulation quantum equivalent mass,  magnetic moment-mol equivalent mass .

An conclusion from the hypothesis is made that all kinds of interactions between any two objective bodies are equal to that of gravitational one under corresponding equivalent mass. In other word , to any basic physical interaction , there would be existence of specific mass or equivalent mass under which this physical interaction is equally a result of gravitational one .

Also from the hypothesis , mass law is inferred which means that mass of any object in the universe is equal to sum of energies fed back from all other objects of the universe divided by speed of light  .

Gravitational law and Coulomb law can be derived from the hypothesis either .

This paper is based on theory constituted in paper of “Completable Space-Time and Default Space-Time” also written by the author.

 

1    Feeding Back Energies Hypothesis

 

Suppose there are two celestial bodies in the universe  and and apart each , thus: celestial body   radiates some amounts of energies to celestial body  and then celestial body  feeds same amounts of energies back to celestial body . These amounts of energies are directly proportional to masses of these two bodies and inversely proportional to  , that is :

                                  (1-1)

Here =|| , =|| .

      is gravitational constant.

According what said in the paper“ Completable Space-Time and Default Space-Time” , we know  , so we can substitutes  by  and notice that:

  =.

So formula (1-1) can morph into another form as below:

                           (1-2)

We call expression (1-1) as  reduced form of the hypothesis and equation (1-2) as  reduced form.

Of course we can have other such similar reduced form of  the hypothesis, such as reduced form , reduced form and reduced form … . 

 

2    Mass  Law

 

From this hypothesis , we can get a inference of mass law . The mass law says that mass of any object in the universe is equal to sum of energies fed back from all other objects of the universe divided by square of speed of light .  That is :

                       (2-1)

          

Now we demonstrate this conclusion .

Suppose there is an object whose mass is  energies fed back from all other objects of the universe to it  is  , and two conditions are required :

   , Mass density in the universe is even .

   , Geometry shape of the universe is spherical .

According to the hypothesis (1-1) , we can get :

Also by condition and condition  , we know that energies fed back from all other objects of the universe to  is the same ones which is fed back from sum of masses of these objects as a whole situated in a distance of radius of the universe to it . That is :

                 (2-2)

   here , is radius of the universe

 is mass of the universe

Then according to default theorem , we can get :

                 (2-3)

We now have known that total masses of the universe equals (n) and radius of the universe equals (n )  , n is modulus of information of the universe  (see another paper of “ G Bubble Burst and the Universe Being Created ”  in section of investigation to cosmology continued ) .

 thus :

   

      =

while  =

So              (2-4 )

That is :   

Everyone knows  compared this formula to equation(2-4) , we get :

                              (2-5)

While  has been utterly proved to be true by scientific theory and numerous physical experiments .

So we have vindicate that total energy of an object in the universe is coming from those fed back from all other objects of the universe  in other word , mass of an object in the universe is equal to quotient of sum of energies fed back from all other objects of the universe and square of speed of light . That is :

        

During process of demonstration to mass law , we used preconditions

    , Mass density in the universe is even .

    , Geometry shape of the universe is spherical .

Since we now convince that mass law is true , that is , under these two conditions , this conclusion stands . Then do we assure that such conditions are the only ones to meet this result ?

If these two conditions are the only ones to match the conclusion , then we can absolutely believe that the universe is uniformity everywhere and spherical to any observer in the universe . . 

In addition , since modulus of information of the universe had nothing to do with position in

which an observer stands , so physical properties of the universe , such as its total mass , radius , age , mass density , expansion speed and temperature of background radiation , remain same to any observer in the universe  , this means the universe is of isotropy (see another paper of “ G Bubble Burst and the Universe Being Created ”  in section of investigation to cosmology continued ) .

As we know that uniformity and isotropy of the universe are all about of so called principle of cosmology . Now we finally find out theoretical root of this principle . The principle of cosmology is right .

From discussions above , we now perfect this principle as :

The universe is uniformity , isotropy and constant spherical in its three dimensional space .

 

3   Inference of Gravitational Law

 

   According to energy feedback principle of equation (1-1) , and taking the derivative of  with respect to time  , we can get :

      

            =        (3-1)

From results of Feeding Back Theory of the Universe , we know that :

Minimum of  is approaching to ==0.4050833153880067…e-34

Minimum of  is approaching to =1.3512124957728855…e-43

  Then we have :

      =

  since this result stand anywhere  , so we get an universal conclusion :

                                              (3-2)

  while according to theory of physics and mass law mentioned above  we know that  have been transformed into parts of mass of  , so there would be the case of 0 .

Thus :                   (3-3)

      here ,  is momentum of

            is force exerted by  upon  

compared to equation (3-1) , (3-2) and (3-3) , we have :

                                      (3-4)

Since this force is attractive which is verified by observation , so we now designate the sign of “+” as representation of attractive property  .

   Also from equation (3-3) and equation (3-4) , we assure that gravitational force stems from feeding back energies along with symbiosis of speed of light  . So we begin to be convinced that gravitational action (or gravitational radiation ) also spread by speed of light  .

   As to detection to this gravitational radiation , we must realize that we can not directly measure it , because it has converged into part of mass of  or measuring instrument before we capture it . To this regard , we can comprehend more sufficiently about it through looking at mass law and information equation of the universe which is expounded in paper of “ G Bubble Burst and the Universe Being Created ” continued .

 

4       Morphing Form of the Hypothesis

            Under Equivalent Masses      

 

We are popularizing (1-1) into any objective bodies , that is : feeding back energies between any two objective bodies are can be formulated as (4-1) below

                                        (4-1)

Here  =|| , =||

 

4.1 , Morphing form of charge equivalent mass

    From previous results mentioned , per unit of charges are equivalent to a mass of  , and also substitute  and  by this equivalent mass in (4-1) , and:

=

So we get:

                            (4-2)

Let , we have:

                                       (4-3)

This means feeding back electrostatic energies between two basic charge  equal to gravitational energies of two objective bodies whose mass are =each. Here  is constant of fine structure.

   Also we can reduce (4-2) into another form of reduced

                  (4-4)  

   if we introduce, this expression can reduce itself into one we are so familiar with.

 

4.2 , Inference of Coulomb Law

   From equation (4-2)  , we take the derivative of it with respect to time  , we can get :

        =

            ==

             here   (fine structure constant)

From equation (3-2) we know :

         

   Also in this case , does not transform into part of mass of objective bodies involved , so we have : 0  or   0 ,

 thus : = 

 and     .  

       here is momentum of

 Thus we have :

       

   When charges have opposite nature , we have :

 

 It means the force is attractive ;

 When charges have same nature  , we have :

 

 It means the force is repulsive . 

 

4.3 , Morphing Form of Magnetic moment related equivalent masses

There are three situations of this type of equivalent mass .

4.3.1 , Magnetic moment–magnetic flux quantum equivalent mass    

We call quotient between an elementary particle’s magnetic moment and flux quantum

as magnetic moment-flux quantum equivalent mass , that is

                                                (4-5)

here ,  ,

               is magnetic moment of the particle .

So we get morphing form of magnetic moment-magnetic flux quantum equivalent mass

                                         (4-6)

or                         (4-7)

4.3.2 ,Magnetic moment- circulation quantum equivalent mass

  We call quotient between elementary particle’s magnetic moment and its circulation quantum as magnetic moment-circulation quantum equivalent mass , that is :

                                                   (4-8)

here , ,  is mass of the particle involved.

So we get morphing form of magnetic moment-circulation quantum equivalent mass

                                          (4-9)

or                         (4-10)

4.3.3  , Magnetic moment-mol equivalent mass

We call quotient of magnetic moment of elementary particle and  as magnetic moment- mol equivalent mass , That is :

                (4-11)

So we get morphing form of magnetic moment- mol equivalent mass

                                           (4-12)

or                        (4-13)

   According to equation (4-1) and above equivalent masses and their corresponding morphing forms , we can view mutual actions between any two elementary particles as gravitational effect under various equivalent masses . In other words , all kinds of basic physical interactions  between any two objective bodies have common form in terms of mathematical expression , or to any such interaction , there would be existence of a mass or an equivalent mass under which this interaction equals gravitational one both quantitatively and essentially .

 

5   Calculating Paradigm

 

Suppose there are two protons and, its magnetic moments are  and

 

Its rest masses are and= , Each carry basic charge of .

   We know from what have discussed above that ratio of energies of all kinds of actions(feeding back energies) between these two protons are equal to that of square of corresponding equivalent masses .that is :

5.1 ,

 That is

Here using expresses gravitational energies feedback between these two protons, and

5.2 , 

When  = 1 , we get     

When , we get

5.3 ,

( here  )

When   = 1 , we get 

When    , we get we get:

     .

5.4 ,  

  

Being written here , I put my pen aside , looking out of window ,gazing at sky and thinking : by using this method of space-time analysis , besides keeping in accordance with fundamental principles of physics and observation of objective fact and datum , we indeed find some places in the universe where we do have not ever touched yet and do have discovered some essence of the universe . It is almost categorically certain that following this suit  , we can make more discoveries against the universe.

Since CST contains all messages of the universe , only endeavor need we down the road and decode these messages which unveil gene map of pedigree of the universe. For instance ,

   How does time of the universe being created?

   Why time has capacity of reaching anywhere in the universe at same moment and ubiquity?

   How the universe can reconstruct entropy and send them back in terms of time

   Where have things happened in the past gone ?

   Who or What govern the universe ultimately?

      ……

   I have been looking forward to have an appropriate chance to grind them with scientists together.

   The subject is “G Bubble” Burst and the Universe Being Created 

                                           The end of this paper

                           Original version written in Jun 29 ,2005 , Dalian ,China.

                           Amended in July , 2006 , Dalian , China .

 

 

 

 

                   

 

 Reference Index

1 , ref. 1:

Longdao Xu , Dictionary of Physics , Beijing: Science Press , 2004

2 , ref.2

Zheng Zhao , Black Hole and Curved Space-Time , Shanxi:

ShanxiScience and Technology Press , 2000.

3 , ref.3:

Bingxing Shi , Quantum Physics , Beijing: Qinghua University Press , 1982. .