Completable
SpaceTime and Default SpaceTime
Author: Zhiqiang Zhang
(ID:210211195801073173)
Email : gp@xinzhitrading.cn
Key word : G gauge , Space time configuration(STC) , Space time
value(STV)
Reciprocal Modulus Theorem , Default Theorem
Abstract
In this paper , a set
of spacetime standards (G gauges) for basic physical units are set forth at
first and then spacetime configurations (STC) of these units are derived from
these standards, such as :
_{} _{} _{} _{}
(kilogram)
(Ampere)
(Kelvin)
(Mol)
In the universe , only
two types of space time exist that are completable spacetime (CST) and default
space time (DST) .
Every physical unit
can be expressed by means of combination of various dimensions of space unit ,
time unit and an coefficient , just like manner of velocity unit which combines
one dimension space , one dimension time and an coefficient of 2.99792458e+8 .
Such expression for an physical unit is called space time configuration of this
unit (STC) , expressed by a general formula of _{} .
Every physical quantity
_{} (including
physical unit) has its own space time value (STV) , such as
_{}=2.4686279637116245…e+34
(Length or one dimensional space)
_{}=0.7400760451286427…e+43 (One dimensional time)
_{}=1.8327730013788420…e+7 (Mass)
_{}=2.8154860927690915…e33 (Thermal Temperature.)
_{}=0.3031692234676164…e30 (Electric Current Intensity)
_{}=2.0392349827177270…e10 (Energy)
_{}=0.3594777716407099…e6 (Basic
Charge)
_{}= 1
(Gravitational Constant)
As demonstrated in this
paper , STV of dimension of a physical quantity belonging to CST is equal to
that of reciprocal of its modulus (reciprocal modulus theorem). Many of basic
physical constants bear this characteristic. such as: gravitational constant ,
that of Planck , light speed , Boltzmann
, Avogadro , and other most basic physical constants . They all belong to CST
and equal in terms of STV.
Such as: _{} .
Also there is another method ,default
theorem , to calculate a physical process equation by which we can ignore all
physical constants in it which are CST , just making out STV of a mathematical
expression which describes this physical process (DST) and multiplying the STV
of this DST with corresponding G gauge to count physical quantity to be sought
.
1 G Gauges of
the Universe
In a moment at which
the universe was formed ,rules under which the universe runs were brought
simultaneously .These rules stipulate a sets of spacetime standards that is G
gauges for all kinds of physical process generated by the universe .The
universe runs itself strictly under these rules.
1.1 , Basic G gauges
1.1.1 , _{}=_{}=0.4050833153880067.…e34 (_{})
(Length Gauge)
1.1.2 , _{} =_{}=1.3512124957728855…e43
(_{})
(Time Gauge)
1.1.3 , _{}=_{}=0.5456213067563055…e7
(_{})
(Mass Gauge)
1.1.4 , _{}=0.3551784548210921…e+33 (_{})
(Thermodynamic Temperature Gauge)
1.1.5,
_{}=3.2984878496639910…e+30
(_{})
(Electric Current Intensity
Gauge)
1.1.6 , _{}=0.1660540186674938…e23 (_{})
(Mol Gauge)
1.1.7 , Luminous Intensity : ?
The above spacetime standards
of basic physical units are called as basic G gauges of the universe . Rest of
G gauges for some other derived physical units are listed in table A2.
1.2 , Primary properties of G
gauges
1.2.1 , Spacetime
value of a G gauge’s dimension is equal to that of reciprocal of its modulus.
1.2.2 , Spacetime
value of every G gauge =1
1.2.3 , G gauges belong
to completable spacetime(CST).
1.3 Meaning of STC and STV
1.3.1 . Spacetime configuration
When we express
dimension of a physical unit by means of _{}, then we call such expression is spaceti\me configuration
of this unit abbreviated by STC .
Here _{} is one dimension
of space , _{} is that of time ,
_{}is an coefficient .
1.3.2 , Spacetime value
Suppose a physical
quantity_{}and then, value of _{} , that of_{}and that of _{}are all called as spacetime value of this physical quantity ,
expressed by _{}.
1.4 , Spacetime configuration and
value of basic G gauges
Table A1 list seven
basic G gauges ,among them seventh is unknown so far . In this paper , observed
statum as calculating basis of physical constants used in calculations of table
A1 are taken from reference 1 of this paper .
Table A1 STC
and STV of Basic G Gauges and its dimensions
G gauges 
Expression 
Modulus 
Dimension 
STC of dimension 
STV of dimension 
STV 
_{} 
_{} 
0.4050833153880067.…e34 
_{} 
_{} 
2.4686279637116245…e+34 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
1.3512124957728855…e43 
_{} 
_{} 
0.7400760451286427…e+43 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
0.5456213067563055…e7 
_{} 
_{} 
1.8327730013788420…e+7 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
0.3551784548210921…e+33 
_{} 
_{} 
2.8154860927690915…e33 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
3.2984878496639910…e+30 
_{} 
_{} 
0.3031692234676164…e30 
1 
_{} 
_{} 
0.1660540186674938…e23 
_{} 
_{} 
6.0221367e+23 
1 
_{} 
? 
? 
cd 
? 
? 
1 
2
SpaceTime Configurations and Value
of Physical Dimension and Constants
2.1 , Several calculations
According tableA1
where values of basic dimensions are listed , we can count some data as below;
_{}
and then we get _{};
_{}and then we get _{};
Form _{} and _{} ,
we get:
_{} From
Planck constant:
_{} We get:_{} .
Spacetime configuration of basic
physical dimension can be calculated by its spacetime value. General
calculating rule is that most of its spacetime value is contained in terms of _{}, and residue of the value is compensated by an coefficient _{} and _{}.
e.g:
_{}
configuration of _{} and _{} which is most
close to this value is _{}, then we have:
_{}
while _{}, thus:
We get _{} = 22.7423949951214240…
,
So , _{}＝ 22.7424_{} .
By calculating , we find a result as
below:
_{}
Which is that space –time
value of all of G gauges and many basic physical constants are equal and equal
to 1.
There is constant which
deserve a special illustration. It is physical constant _{} (permittivity).
_{}
While _{} , _{} ,
Thus , _{}.
So we can see that permittivity _{} is a
constant without dimension actually , but this does not affect its application
in classical physics.
e.g: _{}
_{}
While _{}.
2.2 , Definitions for spacetime
configuration and value of physical dimensions and physical quantities.
We have briefly discussed meaning about
spacetime configuration and its value , Here its definition more strict are
given as below:
2.2.1 , Spacetime value of physical dimension
Suppose there is a
physical quantity
_{}
Here , _{}is modulus of _{}
_{} is dimension of _{}.
We call value of dimA
is spacetime value of this dimension and expressed by _{} , or_{} , or _{} .
2.2.2 , Spacetime configuration
of physical dimension
Suppose there is a
physical quantity
_{}_{}
Here _{}is modulus of _{}
_{} is dimension of _{}.
we call that_{} which equally express_{} is spacetime configuration of this physical dimension. We
use _{} as its symbol or
abbreviated by _{} or _{} or _{} .
Here , _{} is
coefficient and _{}
_{} is one dimension
space and _{} is that of
time
_{} = 0 , 1 ,2 ,3 ,4
,5 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , 5
_{} =0 , 1 ,2 ,3 ,4
,5 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , 5
.2.2.3 , Spacetime configuration
and Value of Physical quantity
Modulus of physical
quantity _{} multiply dim_{} is called spacetime configuration of this physical quantity
, expressed by_{}or _{}
That is : _{}=_{}
or _{}=_{}.
Its value is called spacetime value of
this physical quantity , and expressed by _{} or _{} , or _{} , that is :
_{}=_{}
or _{}=_{}.
2.3 , STC and STV for Some Derived
Physical Dimensions
Table A2 lists some G
gauges of physical dimension and its STC and STV.
From tableA2 ,we
find some things interesting , e.g:
2.3.1 , equivalent mass of charge
STC of electric charge
is _{}, that of mass _{}
So we have
_{}
This result means that
per unit of charge _{} is equal to a
mass of_{}.
Table A2 STC and STV of Some
Physical Quantity
Physical Quantity 
Name of SI unit 
Symbol 
Expression 
STC 
STV 
G gauges 
Frequency 
Herz 
Hz 
_{} 
_{} 
1.3512124957728855.. e43 
﹝(_{})_{}﹞_{}HZ 
Force 
Newton 
N 
_{} 
_{} 
0.8260600676546261.. e44 
﹝(N)_{} ﹞_{}N 
Energy.work., heat 
Joule 
J 
_{} 
_{} 
2.0392349827177270.. e10 
﹝(J)_{} ﹞_{}J 
Power radiant, flux 
Watt 
W 
_{} 
_{} 
2.7554397904653969.. e53 
﹝(W)
_{}﹞_{}W 
Electric charge 
Coulomb 
C 
_{} 
_{} 
0.2243682799086353.. e+13 
﹝(C)_{} ﹞_{}C 
Electric potential 
Volt 
V 
_{} 
_{} 
0.9088784669330802.. e22 
﹝(V)_{} ﹞_{}V 
Electric conductance 
Farad 
F 
_{} 
_{} 
2.4686279637116245..e+34 
﹝(F)
_{}﹞_{}F 
Magnetic flux density 
Tesla 
T 
_{} 
_{} 
1.1037503975101583.. e48 
﹝(T)_{} ﹞_{}T 
Magnetic flux 
Weber 
_{} 
_{} 
_{} 
0.6726391813104178.. e+21 
﹝(_{})_{}﹞_{}_{} 
Speed 

v 
_{} 
_{} 
1/c= 0.3335640951981520.. e8 
﹝(v)_{}﹞_{}v 
Acceleration 

a 
_{} 
_{} 
0.4507159735729194.. e51 
﹝(a)_{}﹞_{}a 
Angular momentum 

M 
_{} 
_{} 
1/h= 0.1509188961097711.. e+34 
﹝(M)_{}﹞_{}M 
Momentum 

P 
_{} 
_{} 
0.0611134726790853.. 
﹝(P)_{}﹞_{}P 
entropy 

S 
_{} 
_{} 
1/_{}= 0.7242923301787988.. e+23 
﹝(S)_{}﹞_{}S 
Electric field strengh 

E 
_{} 
_{} 
0.3681715026700766.. e56 
﹝(E)_{}﹞_{}E 
Magnetic field strength 

H 
_{} 
_{} 
0.1228087941658695.. e64 
﹝(H)_{}﹞_{}H 
Gravitational constant 

G 
_{} 
_{} 
1 
G 
Planck Constant 

h 
_{} 
_{} 
1 
h 
Permittivity 

_{} 
_{} 
_{} 
8.854187817e12 

2.3.2 , Angular momentum
STC of
angular momentum is_{}.
2.3.3 , Magnetic moment
Dimension of magnetic moment is_{}, while _{}
So , STC
of magnetic moment is _{}=_{}.
2.3.4 , Equivalent mass of
magnetic moment 1
We know per
unit of magnetic flux_{}, so
_{}
This means that
quotient of per unit magnetic moment and magnetic flux is equivalent to a mass
of_{}.
2.3.5 , Equivalent mass of
magnetic moment 2
As we know that
circulation quantum _{}
Here _{} represents mass
of the particle involved. So ,
_{}.
This means that
quotient of per unit magnetic moment and circulation quantum is equivalent to a
mass of_{}.
In another paper , written by the author
and entitled “Feeding Back Energy Principle and Its Equivalent Mass Forms”, we
can see that all kinds of interactions between any two objects are equivalent
to that of gravitational one under corresponding equivalent mass.
2.4 , 10 dimensions spacetime of the universe
Sifting thoroughly
among all STC of all physical units both basic and derived ones , we find out
that numbers of dimensions both for time or space which any physical unit
contains are equal or less than 5 . As long as this bar has not been broken
under full coverage of physics , that is : condition
5 ≥ _{} ≥ 0 , 5 ≥ _{} ≥ 0
Is not infringed , we would absolutely convince that the
univers3e is consists of 5 dimensional space and 5 dimensional time , in other
word , the universe is composed of
10 dimensional space time .
3 Completable SpaceTime and
Reciprocal Modulus Theorem
3.1 , Definition of Completable
Spacetime
Suppose there is a
physical quantity _{}
If
STV (_{} ) = 1 ,
then we call this physical quantity is
completable spacetime , simplified as CST.
3.2 , Reciprocal modulus theorem
Suppose an CST =_{}
Thus: _{}
e.g 1:_{}.According this theorem , we have :
_{}
_{}
e.g 2: G=_{} ，according to this theorem , we
have:
(_{})_{} = _{}.
we prove this by
calculating STV of (_{})
(_{})_{} =
_{}3.3 , Primary
properties of CST
3.3.1 , mass:0.5456213067563055…e7 _{} (=_{}).
3.3.2 , dimension: 0.4050833153880067…e34 _{} (=_{})
3.3.3 , energy; 0.4903799750763794…e+10 _{} ( =_{})
3.3.4 , speed: 2.99792458e+8 _{}_{}(=_{})
3.3.5 , frequency: 0.7400760451286427…e+43 _{} (=_{})
3.3.6 , temperature: 0.3551784548210921…e+33 _{}(= _{})
3.3.7 , component: containing 0.7400760451286427…e43
numbers of Planck particle
(_{})，see “ Planck Particle” behind )
f , G gauges : all G
gauges can be derived from any CST.
e.g:_{}
_{}.
4 Default SpaceTime
and Default Theorem
4.1 , Definition of Default
Spacetime
Suppose a physical
quantity_{} ,
If _{}
Then we call this
physical quantity as default spacetime , Simplified as DST.
4.2 , Default Theorem
Suppose a mathematical
expression described a physical process as:
_{}
Here
_{} are CST elements
_{} are DST elements
_{} are constants
and then we have:
_{}
Here _{}=dim_{} is dimension of_{}.
This means that a
certain physical law or theorem actually reflects STV of DST produced by this
physical process. The quotient of this STV of this DST and STV of
characteristic dimension of this law or theorem is equal to_{} . During process of calculation of this STV , all CST
elements can be canceled without any effect to result of this calculation(since_{} =1) .
e.g: when calculating
gravitational force of two object whose
mass are 1 kg each and 1m apart , then according to _{}
we have_{}.
If we count it by means
of default theorem , then we have:
_{}=_{}
_{}_{}
=_{}.
Here _{}1.2105657193177600…e+44 _{}(See table A2)
5
Frequency and Energy Expression
of Physical Quantity
Suppose a physical quantity_{} , thus
Frequency of _{} is ;
_{}
( substituting_{}_{} by_{}/_{} in _{} expression , we
get _{} )
Energy of _{} is :
_{}
( since _{}, so we can get this result)
e.g :
Calculating frequency of 1kg
In this case , _{}=3 , _{}=2 _{} = 1 and_{}= _{} , so we get
_{}
=_{}.
_{} _{}
Of course , if we do
this job by traditional method , calculating process may be much more simple ,
here I just want to prove integrity of spacetime theory .
From uniformity of these two methods , we now almost convince that all STC and STV we have found out are correct , and that all physical constants belonging to CST are equal and equal to 1 in value term . Otherwise calculating results made by default theorem will certainly differ from ones made by traditional method of physics . This also manifests that Feeding Back Theory of the Universe is totally compatible downward with fundamental principle and concepts of our physics
As matter of fact , default theorem may not simplify calculation process of a certain physical equation , but sometimes it can play a role which traditional method can’t even touch and be possible to play .
For instance , to a specific physical process , thanks to so many known and unknown physical quantities which all play its role in this process , it is so difficult even impossible for us to establish a mathematic model to depict it . But fortunately we can learn STV of this physical process by chance , therefore we shall be able to get result to be sought without establishing a math model .
Another example , a certain law or theorem of physics only tell us specific value of a physical quantity . By this value , we can solely know value of this physical quantity , while other equivalent physical effect this quantitative relation has implied and implicated can’t be revealed directly by this law or theorem . If we apply default theorem , we can roll out all equivalent physical effect and its corresponding values of this quantitative relation by using STV of this law or theorem gotten from value of the physical quantity .
Refer to another paper of “G Bubble Burst and the Universe Being Created ” continued .
6
Planck Particle
6.1 , Definition of Planck
Particle
We call a particle as Planck Particle if this particle has such
characteristics whose energy is
equal to _{} and its_{},
6.2 , Primary Properties of Planck
Particle
6.2.1 , _{}
6.2.2 , energy =_{}=_{}(_{})
6.2.3 , frequency =1 HZ =_{}( _{}_{})
6.2.4 , speed =_{}= _{} (_{})
6.2.5 , dimension = _{}= _{} (_{})
6.2.6 , mass =_{} =_{} (_{})
6.2.7 , temperature = _{}=_{} (_{})
6.2.8 , Planck particle is the most fundamental particle which forms
all other kinds of substances.
Suppose a physical quantity _{}, thus
Numbers of Planck
particles this A contain equal to_{}
_{}
We see_{} , this means
numbers of Planck particle contained in_{}equal to modulus of frequency of _{}.
e.g: a photon _{}
here _{} = 5 ,_{} = 4 , _{} ,_{} . so we have:
_{}
since _{}
7 Negative SpaceTime
From _{} gauge , we have :
_{}
So, _{}
When we take the
negative one, then we get: _{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}.
Here a physical unit of_{} represents its corresponding ones of positive space time in
negative space time .We know from this result that in negative spacetime , STV
of some physical dimensions are equal to that of corresponding ones in positive
spacetime , and some equal in modulus but inverse in Its sign. This may unveil
some properties of antiparticle or antisubstances.
We can use spacetime
analysistechnique applied in positive spacetime to ponder about negative
spacetime.
The end of this paper
Written in Jun. 24 , 2005 , Dalian China.
Amended
in Sep. , 2006 .
Reference Index
1 , ref. 1:
Longdao Xu , Dictionary of Physics , Beijing: Science Press , 2004
2 , ref.2
Zheng Zhao , Black Hole and Curved SpaceTime , Shanxi:
ShanxiScience and Technology Press , 2000.
3 , ref.3:
Bingxing Shi , Quantum Physics , Beijing: Qinghua University Press ,
1982.