Completable Space-Time and Default Space-Time

                      Author: Zhiqiang Zhang

                      (ID:210211195801073173)

Email : gp@xinzhitrading.cn  

 

Key word : G gauge , Space time configuration(STC) , Space time value(STV)

          Reciprocal Modulus Theorem , Default Theorem

 

 Abstract

 

In this paper , a set of space-time standards (G gauges) for basic physical units are set forth at first and then space-time configurations (STC) of these units are derived from these standards, such as :

           

(kilogram)           (Ampere)            (Kelvin)              (Mol)

In the universe , only two types of space time exist that are completable space-time (CST) and default space- time (DST) .

   Every physical unit can be expressed by means of combination of various dimensions of space unit , time unit and an coefficient , just like manner of velocity unit which combines one dimension space , one dimension time and an coefficient of 2.99792458e+8 . Such expression for an physical unit is called space time configuration of this unit (STC) , expressed by a general formula of  .

Every physical quantity  (including physical unit) has its own space time value (STV) , such as

        =2.4686279637116245…e+34    (Length or one dimensional space)

=0.7400760451286427…e+43     (One dimensional time)

=1.8327730013788420…e+7     (Mass)

     =2.8154860927690915…e-33     (Thermal Temperature.)

     =0.3031692234676164…e-30     (Electric Current Intensity)

     =2.0392349827177270…e-10     (Energy)

      =0.3594777716407099…e-6       (Basic Charge)

      = 1                           (Gravitational Constant)

As demonstrated in this paper , STV of dimension of a physical quantity belonging to CST is equal to that of reciprocal of its modulus (reciprocal modulus theorem). Many of basic physical constants bear this characteristic. such as: gravitational constant , that of Planck , light speed , Boltzmann , Avogadro , and other most basic physical constants . They all belong to CST and equal in terms of STV.

Such as:  .

Also there is another method ,default theorem , to calculate a physical process equation by which we can ignore all physical constants in it which are CST , just making out STV of a mathematical expression which describes this physical process (DST) and multiplying the STV of this DST with corresponding G gauge to count physical quantity to be sought . 

 

1    G Gauges of the Universe

  

In a moment at which the universe was formed ,rules under which the universe runs were brought simultaneously .These rules stipulate a sets of space-time standards that is G gauges for all kinds of physical process generated by the universe .The universe runs itself strictly under these rules.

 

1.1 ,  Basic G gauges

1.1.1 ,  ==0.4050833153880067.…e-34  ()

                              (Length Gauge)

1.1.2 ,   ==1.3512124957728855…e-43  ()

                             (Time Gauge)

1.1.3 , ==0.5456213067563055…e-7   ()

                             (Mass Gauge)

1.1.4 , =0.3551784548210921…e+33 ()

                             (Thermodynamic Temperature Gauge)

1.1.5,  =3.2984878496639910…e+30  ()

                             (Electric Current Intensity Gauge)

1.1.6 ,  =0.1660540186674938…e-23  ()

                                 (Mol Gauge)

1.1.7 , Luminous Intensity : ?

 

The above space-time standards of basic physical units are called as basic G gauges of the universe . Rest of G gauges for some other derived physical units are listed in table A2.

 

1.2 , Primary properties of G gauges

1.2.1 , Space-time value of a G gauge’s dimension is equal to that of reciprocal of its modulus.

1.2.2 , Space-time value of every G gauge =1

1.2.3 , G gauges belong to completable space-time(CST).

 

1.3 Meaning of STC and STV

1.3.1 . Space-time configuration

When we express dimension of a physical unit by means of , then we call such expression is space-ti\me configuration of this unit abbreviated by STC .

 Here  is one dimension of space ,  is that of time , is an coefficient .

1.3.2 , Space-time value

  Suppose a physical quantityand then, value of || , that ofand that of are all called as space-time value of this physical quantity , expressed by .

 

1.4 , Space-time configuration and value of basic G gauges

   Table A1 list seven basic G gauges ,among them seventh is unknown so far . In this paper , observed statum as calculating basis of physical constants used in calculations of table A1 are taken from reference 1 of this paper .

 

Table A1    STC and STV of Basic G Gauges and its dimensions

G gauges

Expression

Modulus

Dimension

STC

of dimension

STV

of dimension

STV
STV of G Gauge gaugais

0.4050833153880067.…e-34

2.4686279637116245…e+34

1

1.3512124957728855…e-43

0.7400760451286427…e+43

1

0.5456213067563055…e-7

1.8327730013788420…e+7

1

0.3551784548210921…e+33

2.8154860927690915…e-33

1

3.2984878496639910…e+30

0.3031692234676164…e-30

1

0.1660540186674938…e-23

     

6.0221367e+23

1

?

?

cd

?

?

1

      

 

2      Space-Time Configurations and Value

             of Physical Dimension and Constants

 

2.1 , Several calculations

   According tableA1 where values of basic dimensions are listed , we can count some data as below;

 

and then we get ;

and then we get ;

   Form  and  ,

   we get:

   From Planck constant:

    We get: .

 Space-time configuration of basic physical dimension can be calculated by its space-time value. General calculating rule is that most of its space-time value is contained in terms of , and residue of the value is compensated by an coefficient  and .

 e.g: 

configuration of  and  which is most close to this value is , then we have:

     

while , thus:

 We get  = 22.7423949951214240… ,

So ,  22.7424 .

 By calculating , we find a result as below:

    

Which is that space –time value of all of G gauges and many basic physical constants are equal and equal to 1.

There is constant which deserve a special illustration. It is physical constant  (permittivity).

      

While  ,  ,

Thus , .

So we can see  that permittivity   is a constant without dimension actually , but this does not affect its application in classical physics.

 e.g:

     

 While  .

  

2.2 , Definitions for space-time configuration and value of physical dimensions and physical quantities.

We have briefly discussed meaning about space-time configuration and its value , Here its definition more strict are given as below:

2.2.1 ,  Space-time value of physical dimension

Suppose there is a physical quantity

  

Here , is modulus of  

       is dimension of . 

We call value of dimA is space-time value of this dimension and expressed by  , or  , or  .  

2.2.2 , Space-time configuration of physical dimension

Suppose there is a physical quantity

  

Here is modulus of  

  is dimension of .

we call that which equally express is space-time configuration of this physical dimension. We use   as its symbol or abbreviated by  or  or  .

Here ,  is coefficient  and

   is one dimension space and  is that of time 

        = 0 , 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,-1 ,-2 ,-3 ,-4 , -5

 =0 , 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,-1 ,-2 ,-3 ,-4 , -5

.2.2.3 , Space-time configuration and Value of Physical quantity

Modulus of physical quantity  multiply dim is called space-time configuration of this physical quantity , expressed byor

That is :  =

 or      =.      

 Its value is called space-time value of this physical quantity , and expressed by  or   , or  , that is :

           =

   or     =.

 

2.3 , STC and STV for Some Derived Physical Dimensions

Table A2 lists some G gauges of physical dimension and its STC and STV.

   From tableA2 ,we find some things interesting , e.g:

2.3.1 , equivalent mass of charge

STC of electric charge is , that of mass  

So we have 

      

This result means that per unit of charge  is equal to a mass of.

 

Table A2     STC and STV of Some Physical Quantity

Physical

Quantity

Name of

SI unit

Symbol

Expression

STC

STV

G gauges

Frequency

Herz

Hz

1.3512124957728855..

e-43

()HZ

Force

Newton

N

0.8260600676546261..

e-44

(N) N

Energy.work., heat

Joule

J

2.0392349827177270..

e-10

(J) J

Power radiant, flux

Watt

W

2.7554397904653969..

e-53

(W) W

Electric charge

Coulomb

C

0.2243682799086353..

e+13

(C) C

Electric potential

Volt

V

0.9088784669330802..

e-22

(V) V

Electric conductance

Farad

F

2.4686279637116245..e+34

(F) F

Magnetic flux density

Tesla

T

1.1037503975101583..

e-48

(T) T

Magnetic flux

Weber

0.6726391813104178..

e+21

()

Speed

 

v

1/|c|=

0.3335640951981520..

e-8

(v)v

Acceleration

 

a

0.4507159735729194..

e-51

(a)a

Angular momentum

 

M

1/|h|=

0.1509188961097711..

e+34

(M)M

Momentum

 

P

0.0611134726790853..

(P)P

entropy

 

S

1/||=

0.7242923301787988..

e+23

(S)S

Electric field strengh

 

E

0.3681715026700766..

e-56

(E)E

Magnetic

field strength

 

H

0.1228087941658695..

e-64

(H)H

Gravitational constant 

 

G

1

G

Planck

Constant

 

h

1

h

Permittivity

 

8.854187817e-12

 

 

2.3.2 , Angular momentum

     STC of angular momentum is.

2.3.3 , Magnetic moment

     Dimension of magnetic moment is, while

     So , STC of magnetic moment is =.

2.3.4 , Equivalent mass of magnetic moment 1

    We know per unit of magnetic flux, so

       

This means that quotient of per unit magnetic moment and magnetic flux is equivalent to a mass of.

2.3.5 , Equivalent mass of magnetic moment 2

   As we know that circulation quantum

Here  represents mass of the particle involved. So ,

           .

This means that quotient of per unit magnetic moment and circulation quantum is equivalent to a mass of.

   In another paper , written by the author and entitled “Feeding Back Energy Principle and Its Equivalent Mass Forms”, we can see that all kinds of interactions between any two objects are equivalent to that of gravitational one under corresponding equivalent mass.

 

2.4 ,  10 dimensions space-time of the universe

Sifting thoroughly among all STC of all physical units both basic and derived ones , we find out that numbers of dimensions both for time or space which any physical unit contains are equal or less than 5 . As long as this bar has not been broken under full coverage of physics , that is : condition

5 || 0 ,  5 || 0  

Is not infringed  ,  we would absolutely convince that the univers3e is consists of 5 dimensional space and 5 dimensional time , in other word ,  the universe is composed of 10 dimensional space time .  

 

                 3  Completable Space-Time and

Reciprocal Modulus Theorem

 

3.1 , Definition of Completable Space-time

   Suppose there is a physical quantity

If  STV ( ) = 1 ,

then we call this physical quantity is completable space-time , simplified as CST.    

 

3.2 , Reciprocal modulus theorem

Suppose an CST =

Thus:   

e.g 1:.According this theorem , we have : 

      

e.g 2: G= according to this theorem , we have:

() = .

we prove this by calculating STV of ()

() =

3.3 , Primary properties of CST

   3.3.1 ,  mass:0.5456213067563055…e-7  (=).

   3.3.2 ,  dimension: 0.4050833153880067…e-34  (=)

   3.3.3 ,  energy; 0.4903799750763794…e+10  ( =)

   3.3.4 ,  speed: 2.99792458e+8 (=)

   3.3.5 ,  frequency: 0.7400760451286427…e+43  (=)

   3.3.6 ,  temperature: 0.3551784548210921…e+33 (= )

   3.3.7 ,  component: containing 0.7400760451286427…e43 numbers of Planck particle

()see “ Planck Particle” behind )

   f , G gauges : all G gauges can be derived from any CST.

      e.g:

          .

 

4   Default Space-Time and Default Theorem

 

4.1 , Definition of Default Space-time

   Suppose a physical quantity ,

   If  

   Then we call this physical quantity as default space-time , Simplified as DST.

 

4.2 , Default Theorem

   Suppose a mathematical expression described a physical process as:

       

        Here  are CST elements

              are DST elements

              are constants

and then we have:

       

Here =dim is dimension of.

This means that a certain physical law or theorem actually reflects STV of DST produced by this physical process. The quotient of this STV of this DST and STV of characteristic dimension of this law or theorem is equal to|| . During process of calculation of this STV , all CST elements can be canceled without any effect to result of this calculation(since =1) .

 e.g: when calculating gravitational force of two object whose

mass are 1 kg each and 1m apart , then according to

we have.

If we count it by means of default theorem , then we have:

=

  

   =.

Here 1.2105657193177600…e+44 (See table A2)

 

5      Frequency and Energy Expression

 of Physical Quantity 

Suppose a physical quantity , thus

   Frequency of  is ;

      

( substituting by/ in  expression , we get   )

Energy of  is :

 

 

( since , so we can get this result)

e.g :

Calculating frequency of 1kg

In this case , =3 , =2  || = 1 and=   , so we get

=.

    

Of course , if we do this job by traditional method , calculating process may be much more simple , here I just want to prove integrity of space-time theory .

From uniformity of these two methods , we now almost convince that all STC and STV we have found out are correct , and that all physical constants belonging to CST are equal and equal to 1 in value term . Otherwise calculating results made by default theorem will certainly differ from ones made by traditional method of physics . This also manifests that Feeding Back Theory of the Universe is totally compatible downward with fundamental principle and concepts of our physics  

    As matter of fact ,  default theorem may not simplify calculation process of a certain physical equation , but sometimes it can play a role which traditional method can’t even touch and be possible to play . 

 

For instance , to a specific physical process , thanks to so many known and unknown physical quantities which all play its role in this process , it is so difficult even impossible for us to establish a mathematic model to depict it . But fortunately we can learn STV of this physical process by chance , therefore we shall be able to get result to be sought without establishing a math model .

Another example , a certain law or theorem of physics only tell us specific value of a physical quantity . By this value , we can solely know value of this physical quantity , while other equivalent physical effect this quantitative relation has implied and implicated can’t be revealed directly by this law or theorem . If we apply default theorem , we  can roll out all equivalent physical effect and its corresponding values of this quantitative relation by using STV of this law or theorem gotten from value of the physical quantity .

Refer to another paper of “G Bubble Burst and the Universe Being Created ” continued .

 

            6    Planck Particle

 

6.1 , Definition of Planck Particle

We call a particle as Planck Particle if this particle has such characteristics whose energy is

equal to  and its,

6.2 , Primary Properties of Planck Particle

6.2.1 ,

6.2.2 , energy ==()

6.2.3 ,  frequency =1 HZ =( )

6.2.4 ,  speed ==  ()

6.2.5 ,  dimension = =  ()

6.2.6 ,  mass = = ()

6.2.7 ,  temperature = = ()

6.2.8 , Planck particle is the most fundamental particle which forms all other kinds of substances.

 Suppose a physical quantity , thus

Numbers of Planck particles this A contain equal to 

     

  We see  , this means numbers of Planck particle contained inequal to modulus of frequency of .

e.g: a photon

here  = 5 , = 4 ,   ,  . so we have:

      

       since

 

  7   Negative Space-Time

 

From  gauge , we have :

So,  

When we take the negative one, then we get:

  

  

  

   .

Here a physical unit of represents its corresponding ones of positive space time in negative space time .We know from this result that in negative space-time , STV of some physical dimensions are equal to that of corresponding ones in positive space-time , and some equal in modulus but inverse in Its sign. This may unveil some properties of anti-particle or anti-substances.

We can use space-time analysistechnique applied in positive space-time to ponder about negative space-time.

                                       

The end of this paper

                                        Written in Jun. 24 , 2005 , Dalian China.

                                              Amended in Sep. , 2006 .

 

 

 

 

 

 Reference Index

1 , ref. 1:

Longdao Xu , Dictionary of Physics , Beijing: Science Press , 2004

2 , ref.2

Zheng Zhao , Black Hole and Curved Space-Time , Shanxi:

ShanxiScience and Technology Press , 2000.

3 , ref.3:

Bingxing Shi , Quantum Physics , Beijing: Qinghua University Press , 1982.