Assumption of Absolute Motion and Feeding Back Principle of Celestial Body

 

Zhiqiang Zhang

(张 志 强)

 

       In this paper, a group of definitions were first defined, then a axiom and two assumptions were put forward. From these, six inferences were derived.

       The important definitions defined in the paper are original field, quasi-relative rest; the important assumptions are absolute motion principle of original field, feeding back principle of celestial body; the important inferences are visible form principle , quasi-time rate principle, implicit form principle. Also a thought experiment on universal gravitation were made in the paper, From the experiment, intrinsically essential connections between universal objects were exposed. 

    Also mass of an object in the universe was put forward , that is . mass of an object in the universe is equal to sum of original fields energies , fed back from all other objects of the universe ,divided by square of c

       At last, the paper pointed out that “concept about universal origin of the human being must realize historical change from that ‘Substance---force’ constructs the world to that “Substance-Motion” does!

 

1.     Definitions, Assumptions and Inferences

 

Definition I

Original Field

Original field is a form of state of substance, which is composed of innumerable moving particles whose rest mass are exactly equal to zero.

 

Definition II

Origin

Every particles in original field are all called origin.

 

Definition III

Quasi-Relative Rest of Celestial Body

A state of celestial body mq that is rest relative to its original field fed back from it to celestial body mi  is called quasi-relative rest of celestial body , or we called that celestial body mq stands quasi-relative rest relative to celestial body mi. See fig.1-1.

 

 

Definition IV

                    Quasi-Relative Vector of Celestial Body

 

       The vector pointing to celestial body mi from celestial body mq which stands quasi-relative rest is called quasi-relative vector of celestial body mi, expressed by iq.

Definition V

Relative Vector of Celestial Body

The vector pointing to celestial body mI from celestial body mq which stands relative rest is called relative vector of celestial body mI, expressed by i

 

         Definition VI

Absolute Vector of Celestial Body

No matter how state celestial body mq stands, the vector pointing to celestial body mi. from celestial body mq is called absolute vector of celestial body mi, expressed by Iq

 

Axiom Original Field Principle

Original field is a intrinsically substantial form of the universe;

Original field is neither created nor destroyed;

Original field is the most basically substantial form of the universe;

All sorts of substantial form of the universe are originated from original field.

 

       Inference I

Principle of Substance Conservation of the Universe

       Universal substances are neither created nor destroyed;

       Universal substances are equal in quantity to moving masses of original field which are reduced from the universal substances, whose value is infiniteness.

 

       Inference II

Principle of Motion Conservation of Universal Substances

       Motions of universal substances are neither created nor destroyed;

       All amounts of movement of universal substances are equal to that of original fields reduced from the universal substances, which is infiniteness.

 

       Assumption I

Principle of Absolute Motion of Original Field

       Motion of original field is absolute and intrinsic;

       The speed of original field, fed back from celestial body mi, relative to celestial body mq standing in quasi-relative rest is always equal to theoretical value of light, c=3×108 .

 

       Assumption II

Absolute Feeding Back Principle of Celestial Body

       Suppose, these are celestial body mq and mi in the universe, thus celestial body mi. radiates certain amounts of original field to celestial body mq, then celestial body mq feeds back equivalent that of original field to it;

       Energies of absolute feeding back original field between these two celestial bodies are directly proportional to their masses, and inversely proportional to distance between them, proportional constant is G’, that is:

                              (1-1)

       Where, EIq is absolute feeding back energies, RIq magnitude of absolute vector Iq ,  m’q and respectively mass of celestial body mq and celestial body mi.

 

       Inference III

Relative Feeding Back Principle of Celestial Body

       Suppose, celestial body mq stands in relative rest, speed of celestial body mi, relative to celestial body mq, is Vi, magnitude of relative vector of celestial body mi is Ri, thus, relative feeding back original field energies are equal to:

 

Ei =G’m q mio /{Ri (1 - / c2 )1/2}  (1-2)

 

       Where mio is rest mass of celestial body mi.

       Demonstration: as celestial body mq stands in relative rest, so RIq in equation (1-1) should be substituted by Ri, then according to equation of relativity ,

       ,We can obtain directly the equation (1-2) from equation (1-1).

 

       Inference IV

Principle of Visible Form of Feeding Back Original Field Energy of

Celestial Body (abbreviation: Visible form Principle)

       Suppose, celestial body mq stands in relative rest, speed of celestial body mi relative to celestial body mq is vi, magnitude of relative vector of celestial body mi is Ri, we call that original field energies, produced by motions of celestial body mi, fed back to celestial body mq, as visible form energies, expressed by Ei. Time rate of the visible form energies are:

 

 

       Where i is average speed of celestial body mi, Tqj period of movement of celestial body mq in its jth celestial system.

      Demonstration: as we now inspect influences energies produced by relative motion of celestial body mi, so in equation (1-2), there is only one variable vi, making derivation of vi with respect to time, we can obtain the first term of equation (1-3). The term means part of visible form energies produced by changes of vi. While other part of visible form energies produced by vi itself may expressed as the second term of equation (1-3) according to the first term. All these two terms together express visible form energies fed back from celestial body mi to celestial body mq in an unit of time.

 

       Inference V

Principle of Quasi-Time Rate

       Suppose, celestial body mq stands in quasi-relative rest, thus, time rate of magnitude of quasi-relative vector of any celestial body in the universe is constantly equal to negative value of light c, that is:

 

 º -c         (1-4)

      

       Where, t q is time in frame of reference of quasi-relative rest.

       Demonstration:

       See Fig.1-2. From assumption I, we know that original field fed back from celestial body mi to celestial body mq is with speed of light c relative to celestial body mq, while according to definition of quasi-relative rest of celestial body, celestial body mi should be rest relative to original field fed back from it to celestial body mq, so it must be true that celestial body mi tends to celestial body mq with speed of light c in state of quasi-relative rest of celestial body mq. According to definition of speed, we have:

 

 

d | iq | / dtq = -c

 

The same analysis may put upon any other celestial body in the universe. So there must be:

 

d | iq | / dt -c

Inference VI

Principle of Implicit Form of Feeding Back Original Field

Energy of Celestial body

(abbreviation: implicit form principle)

Suppose, celestial body mq stands in quasi-relative rest, then original field energies produced by changes of  Riq, fed back form celestial body mi to celestial body mq are called as implicit form energies fed back from celestial body mi to celestial body mq, express by Eiq. Time rate of this implicit form energy is:

 

dEiq / dtq = ( c G’ m’q m’i ) / R2iq  (1-5)

 

Where, m’q, m’i is respectively mass of celestial body mq and celestial body mi in quasi-relative rest.

Demonstration:

As celestial body mq stands in quasi-relative rest, so in equation (1-1), RIq should be Riq, m’q and m’i is constant, there must be:

 

Eiq = (G’ m’q m’i )  / Riq    (1-6)

 

       Making derivation of this equation with respect to time, we have:

 

dEiq / dtq = { d (G’ m’q m’i / Riq  ) / dRiq } × ( dRiq / dtq )

= (-G’m’q m’i / R2iq  ) × ( dRiq / dtq )

 

       introducing equation (1-4), we have:

 

 dEiq / dtq = ( c G’ m’q m’i  )  / R2iq

 

      

 

       

2  Questions and Answer

 

Qes: The end of last century, Mechelson-Morley experiment had denied reality of “ether”, further reality of absolute space and absolute motion. Now you mention absolute motion again , what will it bring about?

Ans: It is obvious that principle of original field, principle of absolute motion of original field and feeding back principle are the most important part of the theory expounded in this paper, and also basis of the theory. From the assumption of absolute motion we can see that absolute motion of the theory is completely different from Newton’s absolute motion. Newton’s absolute motion means movement of an object relative to “absolute space”. which is “absolute rest”. Absolute motion of the theory forsaked ”absolute space” and “absolute rest”, it is intrinsic property of original field. The former describes “absolute motion” with help of “absolute rest”; the later investigated relative rest and relative motion from the view of absolute motion of original field . . Obviously, they differ essentially. Scientific value of “absolute space” and “absolute rest” finally made people to recognize non-objective reality of them, as there are not existence of them at all in the universe. Only absolute motion, relative rest (containing quasi-relative rest) and relative notion are objective reality, therefore they also have corresponding meaning of physics.

 

Qes: People may puzzle about concept of quasi-relative rest. Why can not we observe it?  As it possesses objective background.

Ans: That is why quasi-relative rest has hidden in state of relative rest and is as a potentially state of celestial body. This also means that state of relative rest is consists of innumerable quasi-relative rest. A real, specific observer can only stand in relative rest of a celestial body, for this reason, it is impossible for him to observe quasi-relative rest directly. This also means that people can not observe directly implicit form energy.

 

Qes: A candle of light looks same by a man weighted 70 kg and a child weighted 30 kg, who apart from the candle at equal distance, while the visible from principle expressed that feeding back energy observed is relative to mass and motion of the observer.

Ans: Visible from energies consist of moving energies of all particles whose rest mass are all larger than zero, containing electromagnetic radiation. This sort of energy has something to do with mass and motion of celestial bodies. For example , according to visible form principle and making some simplifications to it ,we now investigate total radiations fed back from the sun to the earth. Look at surveying value first, it is equal to  , area of the earth is , so total radiations

      Would be ( )( )= : then let’s

      see calculating value , from inference IV , we have ,

      substituting their data , we obtain result : . These two values are same in , difference (8.291.71) is considered as a result

      due to high energy particles radiations . This also express a view point

      that radiations between any two celestial bodies have something to do with mechanical movements of all celestial bodies in the universe indeed , it seem to be that relative motions of celestial bodies make a limitation to radiations between any two celestial bodies in the universe .

      but further analysis are necessary before we popularize the result into electromagnetic radiation between two objects on a celestial body. Such as analyzing the term of (G’mi / RIq) (dmq/dt). Does the term have contribution to visible form energy?

 

Qes: According to feeding back principle of celestial body, original field energies fed back from a celestial body to the sun are fed back equivalently to the celestial body by the sun, so all of original field energies received by the sun would be all fed back to celestial bodies in the universe. By original field principle, we know that the sun is also consists of original fields, and now, total of the sun’s original fields are equal to zero. This also means its mass should be equal to zero. How can you explain it ?

Ans: We should consider it from initial stage of the solar system’s evolution, even the universe’s. At present, the mass, relative motion and relative position of celestial bodies in the solar system were originated from original fields of the universe, and had formed a sort of relation of structure and function during a very very long time of evolution, and were a “historical accumulation” of the evolution. Drawing a analogy, a empty pool is poured into water, after a while, it was filled with water. From then, pouring water is equivalently drained, but the pool is still full of water. See Fig.1-4. The water in the pool has reserved for “historical accumulation”. This “pool effect” of celestial system has directly something to do with origination and initial evolution of the universe.

Qes: By the view expounded in the paper, we know that the mass of any celestial body in the universe is determined by all celestial body’s mass and motion, but the celestial body. On the contrary, changes in mass of any celestial body in the universe would giver rise to changes in mass of other celestial body. Is that so?

Ans: Yes, it is. This idea can be expressed exaggeratedly by a thought experiment. Suppose, we removed the sun momentarily to infiniteness, what would planets in the solar system behave? Figures below shows different explanations. See Fig.1-5, Fig.1-6, and Fig.1-7. Of course, the result of Fig.1-7 largely exaggerated. In order to describe the result quantitatively, a mathematical model is proposed below:

            fig 1-5

             fig 1-6

     fig 1-7

                     Suppose, there is a celestial body mq in the universe, its real motion period is Tqj. relative speed of other celestial body of the universe is Vij, its magnitude of quasi-relative vector is Riqj, magnitude of relative vector Rij, ,  thus ,

                     Total energies of celestial body mq, ´c2, is equal to sum of periodic value of time rate of feeding back original field energies fed back from all celestial bodies of the universe to the celestial body mq, that is :

 

                                  (1-8)

     Where, kj is constant of celestial system (see the paper, “e principle of        the universe”), nj is numbers of celestial bodies in jth celestial system(also                                              including particles whose rest masses are larger than zero)

           From this equation , we can obtain mass low of an object ,that is :

      mass of an object is equal to sum of original fields energies , fed back from all other objects of the universe whose rest mass are larger than zero , divided by square of speed of light C

 

                                 (1-9)

           From equation (1-8), we see that total energies of a celestial body consists of two parts, that is, visible from energy (the first two term), implicit form energy (the third term) .

                     Making use of some datum, mass of the earth, Me=5.976×1024 kg, mass of the sun Ms=1.9896×1030 kg, orbital radius of the earth Re=1.497×1011m, revolutional speed of the earth Ve=2.98×104m/s, revolutional period of the earth Te=3.156×107s, and suppositions Ri=Riq, t=tq, m=m’, G’=G, after simply calculating, we know that most of energies of a celestial body is its implicit form energies. So we may simplify equation (1-8), and have:

 

                                    (1—10)

 

                     Also suppose that orbit of the earth is circle, neglecting effects of celestial bodies beyond the solar system, we have:

 

                                          (1-11)

Now, we can discuss contributions of the sun for total energies of the                         earth by equation (1-11).

 

                     Let KO=1 (see paper “e principle of the universe”), left side of equation (1-11) is:

 

                     mq c2 = Me c2 = 5.378 ×1041 J

     contribution of the sun to Right side of equation (1-11) is:

                     c G mq mio Tqo R2io = c G MsMe / R2e = 3.352 ×1038 J

      Rate of these two resule is:

3.352×1038 J / 5.378×1041 J = 0.623×10-3

           From this result, we see that there are great many of matters in

     the space, and we see that if we removed the sun really to infiniteness,

     the earth would resolve about 0.06% of itself. Obviously, if we wanted the

     earth resolving entirely, we would remove all other form of matters of the

     universe to infiniteness, but the earth.

Qes: What exactly are relations between absolute vector Iq, relative vector i and quasi-relative vector iq?

Ans: Let’s go back first into philosophy. Principle of general and individual point out that general exists in individuals, individual contains general. General abstract same sort of individuals, while individual is basis of the abstract concept being concrete reappearance in thinking. For example, concept of “white” is a abstract concept for many things which possesses property of white. There is not a thing of “white” in the world, only exist white of paper, white of snow, and so on. But man’s thinking try to know these concrete white, they have to set up the concept of “white” first, so as to know the sort of thins further (rising to concrete). Now we may come back. Absolute vector Iq of celestial body m is abstraction of relative vector i and quasi-relative vector iq of celestial body m. Iq means nothing but “a vector pointing to celestial body mi from celestial body mq”, because without definite reference of frame, it is no physical meaning to talk about “vector”. When we investigate relative rest and quasi-relative rest of a celestial body, Iq obtains concrete content, and has corresponding meaning of physics. So, relations between absolute vector Iq and relative vector i or quasi-relative vector iq are that of general and individual.

Qes: How we could treat non-objective reality of gravitation ?

Ans: We know that gravitation only reflects correctly in quantity mechanics relations of objects in the universe, it did not essentially reveal interaction between objects. See Fig.1-8 and Fig.1-2. From Fig.1-2, we see that in state of quasi-relative rest of celestial body mq, celestial body mi has a motional tendency with speed of light c toward to celestial body mq . This sort of motional tendency of celestial body mi is brought by intrinsic motion of itself, instead of attraction of celestial body mq.

 

               How does this intrinsic motion of celestial body mi appear in state of relative rest of celestial body mq? How will observer standing on celestial body mq describe this correctly? It is obviously that there is a certain connection between that celestial body mi has a motional tendency with speed of c toward to celestial body mq in state of quasi-relative rest of celestial body mq and that an observer standing on celestial body mq in state of relative rest describe this tendency with help of “gravitation”, in other words, it is only with help of “gravitation” that the observer standing on celestial body mq can reflect correctly this intrinsically motion tendency.

               People may still use ”gravitation” to describe motions of celestial body and other things such as apple’s falling. When doing this, he must remember that there is not any “gravitation” in the universe, it is only a nominal force, because of connection between this nominal force and celestial body’s intrinsic motion in state of quasi-relative rest, people can only describe correctly mechanical relations of natural phenomena, just as people introduce inertia force when they deal with mechanical relations in reference of frame of non-inertia.

               At last, it should be pointed out that concept about origin of the universe of human being must realize historical changes from that “substance---force”constructs the world to that “substance--- motion” does!

 

The end of the paper, finished in 1987