**Assumption of
Absolute Motion and Feeding Back Principle of Celestial Body**

*Zhiqiang Zhang*

**(****张 志 强)**

In this
paper, a group of definitions were first defined, then a axiom and two
assumptions were put forward. From these, six inferences were derived.

The
important definitions defined in the paper are original field, quasi-relative
rest; the important assumptions are absolute motion principle of original
field, feeding back principle of celestial body; the important inferences are
visible form principle , quasi-time rate principle, implicit form principle.
Also a thought experiment on universal gravitation were made in the paper, From
the experiment, intrinsically essential connections between universal objects
were exposed.

Also mass of an object in
the universe was put forward , that is . mass of an object in the universe is
equal to sum of original fields energies , fed back from all other objects of
the universe ,divided by square of* c*

At last,
the paper pointed out that “concept about universal origin of the human being
must realize historical change from that ‘Substance---force’ constructs the
world to that “Substance-Motion” does!

**1. ****Definitions,
Assumptions and Inferences **

Original field is a form of state of substance, which is
composed of innumerable moving particles whose rest mass are exactly equal to
zero.

Every particles in original field are all called origin.

A state of celestial body m_{q
}that is rest relative to its original field fed back from it to celestial
body m_{i }is called quasi-relative
rest of celestial body_{ }, or we called that celestial
body m_{q} stands quasi-relative rest relative
to celestial body m_{i}. See **fig.1-1.**

**Quasi-Relative Vector of Celestial Body**

The vector
pointing to celestial body m_{i} from celestial body m_{q} which stands quasi-relative rest
is called quasi-relative vector of celestial body m_{i}, expressed
by _{ } _{iq.}

Relative Vector of Celestial Body

The vector pointing to celestial body m_{I} from celestial
body m_{q} which stands relative rest is
called relative vector of celestial body m_{I}, expressed by _{
}_{i}

_{ }

_{ }* Definition
V*I

Absolute Vector of Celestial Body

No matter how state celestial body m_{q} stands, the vector pointing to
celestial body m_{i.} from celestial body m_{q}
is called absolute vector of celestial body m_{i}, expressed by_{
}_{I}_{q}

Axiom Original Field Principle

Original field is a intrinsically substantial form of the
universe;

Original field is neither created nor destroyed;

Original field is the most basically substantial form of the
universe;

All sorts of substantial form of the universe are originated
from original field.

__Inference I__

Principle of Substance Conservation of the Universe

Universal
substances are neither created nor destroyed;

Universal
substances are equal in quantity to moving masses of original field which are
reduced from the universal substances, whose value is infiniteness.

__Inference II__

Principle of Motion Conservation of Universal Substances

Motions of
universal substances are neither created nor destroyed;

All amounts
of movement of universal substances are equal to that of original fields
reduced from the universal substances, which is infiniteness.

__Assumption I__

Principle of Absolute Motion of Original Field

Motion of
original field is absolute and intrinsic;

The speed
of original field, fed back from celestial body m_{i}, relative to
celestial body m_{q} standing in quasi-relative rest
is always equal to theoretical value of light, c=3×10^{8}_{ }.

__Assumption II__

Absolute Feeding Back Principle of Celestial Body

Suppose,
these are celestial body m_{q} and m_{i} in the
universe, thus celestial body m_{i.} radiates certain amounts of
original field to celestial body m_{q}, then celestial body m_{q} feeds back equivalent that of
original field to it;

Energies of
absolute feeding back original field between these two celestial bodies are
directly proportional to their masses, and inversely proportional to distance
between them, proportional constant is G’, that is:

*
_{ } _{ } (1-1)*

Where, E_{Iq} is absolute feeding back energies,
R_{Iq} magnitude of absolute vector
_{ } _{I}_{q} ,
m’_{q} and _{ } respectively mass of
celestial body m_{q} and celestial body m_{i}.

__Inference III__

Relative Feeding Back Principle of Celestial Body

Suppose,
celestial body m_{q} stands in relative rest, speed
of celestial body m_{i}, relative to celestial body m_{q}, is V_{i}, magnitude
of relative vector of celestial body m_{i} is R_{i}, thus,
relative feeding back original field energies are equal to:

*E _{i} =G’m*

Where m_{io}
is rest mass of celestial body m_{i}.

Demonstration:
as celestial body m_{q} stands in relative rest, so R_{Iq} in equation (1-1) should be
substituted by R_{i}, then according to equation of relativity ,* *

_{ },We can obtain directly
the equation (1-2) from equation (1-1).

__Inference IV__

**Principle of Visible
Form of Feeding Back Original Field Energy of**

**Celestial Body
(abbreviation: Visible form Principle)**

Suppose,
celestial body m_{q} stands in relative rest, speed
of celestial body m_{i} relative to celestial body m_{q} is v_{i}, magnitude of
relative vector of celestial body m_{i }is R_{i}, we call that
original field energies, produced by motions of celestial body m_{i},
fed back to celestial body m_{q}, as visible form energies,
expressed by E_{i}. Time rate of the visible form energies are:

Where _{ }_{i} is average
speed of celestial body m_{i}, T_{qj} period of movement of celestial
body m_{q }in its jth celestial system.

**Demonstration**: as we now inspect
influences energies produced by relative motion of celestial body m_{i},
so in equation (1-2), there is only one variable v_{i}, making
derivation of v_{i} with respect to time, we can obtain the first term
of equation (1-3). The term means part of visible form energies produced by
changes of v_{i}. While other part of visible form energies produced by
v_{i} itself may expressed as the second term of equation (1-3)
according to the first term. All these two terms together express visible form
energies fed back from celestial body m_{i} to celestial body m_{q} in an unit of time.

__Inference V__

Principle of Quasi-Time Rate

Suppose,
celestial body m_{q} stands in quasi-relative rest,
thus, time rate of magnitude of quasi-relative vector of any celestial body in
the universe is constantly equal to negative value of light ** c**,
that is:

_{ } *º**
- c *(1-4)

Where, t _{q} is time in frame of reference of
quasi-relative rest.

**Demonstration:**

See **Fig.1-2**. From assumption I, we know
that original field fed back from celestial body m_{i} to celestial
body m_{q}
is with speed of light c relative to celestial body m_{q}, while according to definition of
quasi-relative rest of celestial body, celestial body m_{i} should be
rest relative to original field fed back from it to celestial body m_{q}, so it must be true that celestial
body m_{i }tends to celestial body m_{q} with speed of light c in state of
quasi-relative rest of celestial body m_{q}_{. }According to definition of speed, we have:

*d | *_{ } _{i}_{q}*
| / dt*_{q}*
= - c*

The same analysis may put upon any other celestial body in
the universe. So there must be:

*d |*_{ } _{i}_{q}*
| / dt _{ }*

* *

**Principle
of Implicit Form of Feeding Back Original Field**

**Energy
of Celestial body**

**(abbreviation:
implicit form principle)**

Suppose, celestial body m_{q} stands in quasi-relative rest, then
original field energies produced by changes of R_{i}_{q}, fed back form celestial body m_{i}
to celestial body m_{q}_{ }are called as implicit form energies fed back from celestial
body m_{i} to celestial body m_{q}, express by E_{i}_{q}. Time rate of this implicit form
energy is:

*dE _{i}*

Where, m’_{q}, m’_{i} is respectively mass of celestial body m_{q} and celestial body m_{i} in
quasi-relative rest.

**Demonstration:**

As celestial body m_{q} stands in quasi-relative rest, so in
equation (1-1), R_{I}_{q} should be R_{i}_{q}_{, }m’_{q} and m’_{i} is constant, there must be:

*E _{i}*

Making
derivation of this equation with respect to time, we have:

*dE _{i}*

*= (-G’m’*_{q}_{
}*m’ _{i }/ R^{2}_{i}*

introducing
equation (1-4), we have:

* dE _{i}*

_{}

**2****、**** Questions and Answer**

**Qes:
**The end of last
century, Mechelson-Morley experiment had denied reality of “ether”, further
reality of absolute space and absolute motion. Now you mention absolute motion
again , what will it bring about?

**Ans:
**It is obvious that
principle of original field, principle of absolute motion of original field and
feeding back principle are the most important part of the theory expounded in
this paper, and also basis of the theory. From the assumption of absolute
motion we can see that absolute motion of the theory is completely different
from

**Qes:** People may puzzle about concept of
quasi-relative rest. Why can not we observe it? As it possesses objective background.

**Ans:** That is why quasi-relative rest has
hidden in state of relative rest and is as a potentially state of celestial
body. This also means that state of relative rest is consists of innumerable
quasi-relative rest. A real, specific observer can only stand in relative rest
of a celestial body, for this reason, it is impossible for him to observe
quasi-relative rest directly. This also means that people can not observe
directly implicit form energy.

**Qes:** A candle of light looks same by a man
weighted 70 kg and a child weighted 30 kg, who apart from the candle at equal
distance, while the visible from principle expressed that feeding back energy
observed is relative to mass and motion of the observer.

**Ans:
**Visible from energies
consist of moving energies of all particles whose rest mass are all larger
than zero, containing electromagnetic radiation. This sort of energy has something
to do with mass and motion of celestial bodies. For example , according to
visible form principle and making some simplifications to it ,we now investigate
total radiations fed back from the sun to the earth. Look at surveying value
first, it is equal to _{ } ,
area of the earth is _{ } , so total radiations

** **Would be (_{ } )(_{ } )=_{ } : then let’s

see calculating
value , from inference IV , we have_{ },

substituting their
data , we obtain result :_{ } . These two values are
same in_{ } , difference (8.29―1.71) is considered as a result

due to high
energy particles radiations . This also express a view point

that radiations
between any two celestial bodies have something to do with mechanical movements
of all celestial bodies in the universe indeed , it seem to be that relative
motions of celestial bodies make a limitation to radiations between any two
celestial bodies in the universe .

but further
analysis are necessary before we popularize the result into electromagnetic
radiation between two objects on a celestial body. Such as analyzing the term
of (G’m_{i} / R_{I}_{q}) (dm_{q}/dt). Does the term have contribution
to visible form energy?

**Qes:** According to feeding back principle of
celestial body, original field energies fed back from a celestial body to the
sun are fed back equivalently to the celestial body by the sun, so all of
original field energies received by the sun would be all fed back to celestial
bodies in the universe. By original field principle, we know that the sun is
also consists of original fields, and now, total of the sun’s original fields
are equal to zero. This also means its mass should be equal to zero. How can
you explain it ?

**Ans:
**We should consider it
from initial stage of the solar system’s evolution, even the universe’s. At
present, the mass, relative motion and relative position of celestial bodies in
the solar system were originated from original fields of the universe, and had
formed a sort of relation of structure and function during a very very long
time of evolution, and were a “historical accumulation” of the evolution.
Drawing a analogy, a empty pool is poured into water, after a while, it was
filled with water. From then, pouring water is equivalently drained, but the
pool is still full of water. See **Fig.1-4.**
The water in the pool has reserved for “historical accumulation”. This “pool effect”
of celestial system has directly something to do with origination and initial
evolution of the universe.

**Qes:
**By the view expounded
in the paper, we know that the mass of any celestial body in the universe is
determined by all celestial body’s mass and motion, but the celestial body. On
the contrary, changes in mass of any celestial body in the universe would giver
rise to changes in mass of other celestial body. Is that so?

**Ans:** Yes, it is. This idea can be expressed
exaggeratedly by a thought experiment. Suppose, we removed the sun momentarily
to infiniteness, what would planets in the solar system behave? Figures below
shows different explanations. See Fig.1-5, Fig.1-6, and Fig.1-7. Of course, the result of Fig.1-7
largely exaggerated. In order to describe the result quantitatively, a
mathematical model is proposed below:

fig 1-5

fig 1-6

fig 1-7

Suppose,
there is a celestial body m_{q} in the universe, its real motion period is T_{q}_{j}. relative speed of other celestial body of the universe is
V_{ij}, its magnitude of quasi-relative vector is R_{i}_{q}_{j}, magnitude of relative vector R_{ij}, , thus ,

Total energies of celestial body m_{q}, _{ } ´c^{2}, is equal to sum of periodic
value of time rate of feeding back original field energies fed back from all
celestial bodies of the universe to the celestial body m_{q}, that is :

_{ }

_{ } (1-8)

Where, k_{j} is constant of
celestial system (see the paper, “e principle of the
universe”), n_{j} is numbers of celestial bodies in jth celestial
system(also
including particles whose rest masses are larger than zero)

From this equation , we can obtain mass low of an object ,that is :

mass of an
object is equal to sum of original fields energies , fed back from all other
objects of the universe whose rest mass are larger than zero , divided by
square of speed of light *C*

(1-9)

From equation (1-8), we see that total energies of a celestial body
consists of two parts, that is, visible from energy (the first two term),
implicit form energy (the third term) .

Making
use of some datum, mass of the earth, Me=5.976×10^{24 }kg, mass of the
sun Ms=1.9896×10^{30 }kg, orbital radius of the earth Re=1.497×10^{11}m,
revolutional speed of the earth Ve=2.98×10^{4}m/s, revolutional period
of the earth Te=3.156×10^{7}s, and suppositions R_{i}=R_{i}_{q}, t=t_{q}, m=m’, G’=G, after simply calculating,
we know that most of energies of a celestial body is its implicit form
energies. So we may simplify equation (1-8), and have:

_{ }_{ } (1—10)

Also
suppose that orbit of the earth is circle, neglecting effects of celestial
bodies beyond the solar system, we have:

_{ }_{} (1-11)

Now, we can discuss contributions of the sun for total
energies of the
earth by equation (1-11).

Let
K_{O}=1 (see paper “e principle of the universe”), left side of
equation (1-11) is:

* m*_{q}_{
}*c ^{2} = Me c^{2} = 5.378 ×10^{41} J*

contribution of the
sun to Right side of equation (1-11) is:

*
c G m*_{q}*
m _{io} T*

Rate of these
two resule is:

*3.352×10 ^{38}
J / 5.378×10^{41} J = 0.623×10^{-3}*

From this result, we see that there are great many of matters in

the space, and we see that if we removed the sun really to infiniteness,

the earth would resolve about 0.06% of itself. Obviously, if we wanted the

earth resolving entirely, we would remove all other form of matters of the

universe to infiniteness, but the earth.

**Qes:** What exactly are relations between absolute
vector_{ } _{I}_{q}, relative vector _{ } _{i} and quasi-relative
vector _{ } _{i}_{q}?

**Ans:** Let’s go back first into philosophy.
Principle of general and individual point out that general exists in individuals,
individual contains general. General abstract same sort of individuals, while
individual is basis of the abstract concept being concrete reappearance in
thinking. For example, concept of “white” is a abstract concept for many things
which possesses property of white. There is not a thing of “white” in the
world, only exist white of paper, white of snow…, and so on. But man’s thinking try to
know these concrete white, they have to set up the concept of “white” first,
so as to know the sort of thins further (rising to concrete). Now we may come
back. Absolute vector _{ } _{I}_{q} of celestial body m is abstraction of
relative vector _{ } _{i} and quasi-relative
vector _{ } _{i}_{q} of celestial body m. _{ } _{I}_{q} means nothing but “a vector pointing
to celestial body m_{i} from celestial body m_{q}”, because without definite reference
of frame, it is no physical meaning to talk about “vector”. When we investigate
relative rest and quasi-relative rest of a celestial body,_{ } _{I}_{q}_{ }obtains concrete content, and has corresponding meaning of
physics. So, relations between absolute vector _{ } _{I}_{q} and relative vector _{ } _{i} or quasi-relative
vector _{ } _{i}_{q} are that of general and individual.

**Qes:** How we could treat non-objective
reality of gravitation ?

**Ans:** We know that gravitation only reflects
correctly in quantity mechanics relations of objects in the universe, it did
not essentially reveal interaction between objects. See Fig.1-8 and Fig.1-2.
From Fig.1-2, we see that in state of quasi-relative rest of celestial body m_{q}, celestial body m_{i} has a
motional tendency with speed of light c toward to celestial body m_{q} . This sort of motional tendency of
celestial body m_{i} is brought by intrinsic motion of itself, instead
of attraction of celestial body m_{q}.

How does this intrinsic
motion of celestial body m_{i} appear in state of relative rest of
celestial body m_{q}? How will observer standing on celestial body m_{q} describe this correctly? It is
obviously that there is a certain connection between that celestial body m_{i}
has a motional tendency with speed of c toward to celestial body m_{q} in state of quasi-relative rest of
celestial body m_{q} and that an observer standing on celestial body m_{q} in state of relative rest describe
this tendency with help of “gravitation”, in other words, it is only with help
of “gravitation” that the observer standing on celestial body m_{q} can reflect correctly this
intrinsically motion tendency.

People may still use
”gravitation” to describe motions of celestial body and other things such as
apple’s falling. When doing this, he must remember that there is not any
“gravitation” in the universe, it is only a nominal force, because of
connection between this nominal force and celestial body’s intrinsic motion in
state of quasi-relative rest, people can only describe correctly mechanical
relations of natural phenomena, just as people introduce inertia force when
they deal with mechanical relations in reference of frame of non-inertia.

At last, it should be
pointed out that** concept about origin of
the universe of human being must realize historical changes from that
“substance---force”constructs the world to that “substance--- motion” does!**

The end of the
paper, finished in 1987